Organizational Learning Process, CEO Values and Sustainability Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Uganda

Main Article Content

Freddie Lwanga
Professor Micheal Korir
Dr. Ronald Bonuke


Purpose- The paper aims to examine the moderating effect of CEO personal values on the relationship between the organizational learning process and sustainability performance.
Design/Methodology- An explanatory cross-sectional design was used to obtain quantitative data from the managerial staff of 256 medium and large manufacturing firms in Uganda. A survey instrument was used to collect data.
Findings- Organizational learning process and the CEO's personal values have a significant positive direct effect on sustainability performance. Further, the CEO's personal values significantly moderate the relationship between the organizational learning process and sustainability performance.
Practical Implications- Strategies such as training, teamwork, consultancy engagements, and research facilitate learning processes of knowledge acquisition, sharing, interpretation, and storage which in turn improve sustainability performance. In addition, firms that hire CEOs whose personal value system is inclined towards change and self-transcendence are more likely to foster a culture of continuous organizational learning which improves sustainability performance


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Lwanga, F., Korir, M., & Bonuke , R. (2023). Organizational Learning Process, CEO Values and Sustainability Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Uganda. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 6(1), 39-57.
Research Articles

Copyright (c) 2023 Freddie Lwanga, Professor Micheal Korir, Dr. Ronald Bonuke

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Professor Micheal Korir, Moi University, Kenya

Prof. Micheal holds a Ph.d. in Entrepreneurship and Business Management from Kenyatta University. He is a teaching professor in the Department of Management Science and Entrepreneurship, School of Business and Economics, Moi University, Kenya.

Dr. Ronald Bonuke, Moi University, Kenya

Dr. Ronald holds a Ph.D. in Business Management (Marketing Option) from Moi Univeristy. He is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Marketing and Logistics, School of Business and Economics, Moi University, Kenya. 

Abdul-Rashid, S. H., Sakundarini, N., Ghazilla, R. A. R., & Thurasamy, R. (2017). The impact of sustainable manufacturing practices on sustainability performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 37(2), 182-204. DOI:

Agle, B. R., Mitchell, R. K., & Sonnenfeld, J. A. (1999). Who matters to CEOs? An investigation of stakeholder attributes and salience, corporate performance, and CEO values. Academy of management journal, 42(5), 507-525. DOI:

Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. sage.

Aktaş, E., Çiçek, I., & Kıyak, M. (2011). The effect of organizational culture on organizational efficiency: The moderating role of organizational environment and CEO values. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1560-1573. DOI:

Altarawneh, M., Shafie, R., & Ishak, R. (2020). CEO characteristics: A literature review and future directions. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 19(1), 1-10.

Arieli, S., Sagiv, L., & Roccas, S. (2020). Values at work: The impact of personal values in organizations. Applied Psychology, 69(2), 230-275. DOI:

Bananuka, J., Bakalikwira, L., Nuwagaba, P., & Tumwebaze, Z. (2021). Institutional pressures, environmental management practices, firm characteristics and environmental performance. Accounting Research Journal, 34(6),637-665. DOI:

Battistella, C., Cicero, L., & Preghenella, N. (2020). Sustainable organizational learning in sustainable companies. The Learning Organization, 28(1),15-31. DOI:

Benischke, M. H., Martin, G. P., & Glaser, L. (2019). CEO equity risk bearing and strategic risk taking: The moderating effect of CEO personality. Strategic Management Journal, 40(1), 153-177. DOI:

Berson, Y., Oreg, S., & Dvir, T. (2008). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(5), 615-633. DOI:

Bhaskara, G. I., & Filimonau, V. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic and organizational learning for disaster planning and management: A perspective of tourism businesses from a destination prone to consecutive disasters. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 46, 364-375. DOI:

Bhattacharyya, A. (2016). Personal values and attitudes towards societal and environmental accountability: A study of MBA students. Environmental Education Research, 22(4), 590-610. DOI:

Bull, E., & Fokuhl, M. (2020). Factors for Organizational Learning enabling Sustainability Transitions: A case study exploring a Public Service Agency in Scandinavia (Dissertation), Malmo University. Retrieved from

Byukusenge, E., & Munene, J. C. (2017). Knowledge management and business performance: Does innovation matter?. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1), 1368434. DOI:

Chow, W. S., & Chen, Y. (2012). Corporate sustainable development: Testing a new scale based on the mainland Chinese context. Journal of business ethics, 105(4), 519-533. DOI:

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (3rd ed.). Sage Publications

Ecuru, J., Lating, P. O., & Trojer, L. (2014). Innovation characteristics of formal manufacturing firms in Uganda. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 6(5), 415-423. DOI:

Elkington, J. (1997). The triple bottom line. Environmental management: Readings and cases, 2, 49-66.

Evert, R. E., Payne, G. T., Moore, C. B., & McLeod, M. S. (2018). Top management team characteristics and organizational virtue orientation: An empirical examination of IPO firms. Business Ethics Quarterly, 28(4), 427-461. DOI:

Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Parmar, B. L., & De Colle, S. (2010). Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. DOI:

García-Sánchez, I. M., Amor-Esteban, V., & García-Sánchez, A. (2021). Different leaders in a COVID-19 scenario: CEO altruism and generous discourse. Sustainability, 13(7), 3841. DOI:

Globocnik, D., Rauter, R., & Baumgartner, R. J. (2020). Synergy or conflict? The relationships among organizational culture, sustainability-related innovation performance, and economic innovation performance. International Journal of Innovation Management, 24(01), 2050004. DOI:

Hair, J. F., William C. B., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Haleem, F., Farooq, S., Cheng, Y., & Waehrens, B. V. (2022). Sustainable Management Practices and Stakeholder Pressure: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 14(4). su14041967 DOI:

Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper echelons theory: An update. Academy of management review, 32(2), 334-343. DOI:

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication monographs, 85(1), 4-40. DOI:

Herbane, B. (2019). Rethinking organizational resilience and strategic renewal in SMEs. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 31(5-6), 476-495. DOI:

Hira, A., Pacini, H., Attafuah-Wadee, K., & Hassall, J. (2022). Sustainable Manufacturing and Environmental Pollution Programme (SMEP): A Circular Economy Experiment in the Global South. Journal of Developing Societies, 38(3), 287-309. DOI:

Hoffmann, W. H., & Meusburger, L. (2018). How CEO values and TMT diversity jointly influence the corporate strategy making process. Schmalenbach Business Review, 70(2), 149-187. DOI:

Horak, S., Arya, B., & Ismail, K. M. (2018). Organizational sustainability determinants in different cultural settings: A conceptual framework. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27(4), 528-546. DOI:

Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. Organization science, 2(1), 88-115. DOI:

Jose, P. E. (2013). Doing statistical mediation and moderation. Guilford Press, New York.

Jum'a, L., Zimon, D., Ikram, M., & Madzík, P. (2022). Towards a sustainability paradigm; the nexus between lean green practices, sustainability-oriented innovation and Triple Bottom Line. International Journal of Production Economics, 245, 108393. DOI:

Kowuttiphong, P., & Fongsuwan, W. (2019). Structural equation model of variables influencing Thai ceramics entrepreneur organizational sustainability. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 11(1), 1-23. DOI:

Lichtenstein, S., & Higgs, M. (2022). Personal Values and Strategic Choice. In Strategy through Personal Values (pp. 19-42). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. DOI:

Liden, R., Fu, P., Liu, J., & Song, L. (2016). The influence of CEO values and leadership on middle manager exchange behaviors: A longitudinal multilevel examination. Nankai Business Review International, 7(1), 2-20. DOI:

Lopez, S. P., Peón, J. M. M., & Ordás, C. J. V. (2005). Organizational learning as a determining factor in business performance. The learning organization, 12(3), 227-245. DOI:

Mafabi, S., Munene, J., & Ntayi, J. (2012). Knowledge management and organizational resilience: Organizational innovation as a mediator in Uganda parastatals. Journal of Strategy and Management, 5(1), 57-80. DOI:

Martínez-Costa, M., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Dine Rabeh, H. A. (2019). The effect of organizational learning on inter-organizational collaborations in innovation: an empirical study in SMEs. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 17(2), 137-150. DOI:

MoFPED (2019a) Budget speech 2019/20: Industrialisation for job creation and shared prosperity. Kampala: MoFPED

Namagembe, S., Sridharan, R., & Ryan, S. (2016). Green supply chain management practice adoption in Ugandan SME manufacturing firms: The role of enviropreneurial orientation. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 13(3), 154-173. DOI:

Annual Corporate Report, (2018). “National environmental management authority annual corporate report for 2017/18”, available at: NEMA%20 Corporate%20Report%20FY2017-18%20(1).pdf (accessed 15 June 2020).

Nevis, E.C., DiBella, A.J. and Gould, J.M. (1995). Understanding organizations as learning systems, Sloan Management Review, 36(2), 73‐85.

Ng, E. S., & Sears, G. J. (2020). Walking the talk on diversity: CEO beliefs, moral values, and the implementation of workplace diversity practices. Journal of Business Ethics, 164(3), 437-450. DOI:

Noor, N. M., Al Bakri Abdullah, M. M., Yahaya, A. S., & Ramli, N. A. (2015). Comparison of linear interpolation method and mean method to replace the missing values in environmental data set. In Materials Science Forum, 803, 278-281. DOI:

North, K., & Kumta, G. (2020). Knowledge management: Value creation through organizational learning (2nd ed.), Springer Cham, Switzerland. DOI:

OECD (2020), Sustainability and Competition, OECD Competition Committee Discussion Paper,

Oh, S. Y., & Han, H. S. (2020). Facilitating organizational learning activities: Types of organizational culture and their influence on organizational learning and performance. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 18(1), 1-15. DOI:

Omisore, A. G. (2018). Attaining Sustainable Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa; The need to address environmental challenges. Environmental development, 25, 138-145. DOI:

Pedersen, E. R. G., Gwozdz, W., & Hvass, K. K. (2018). Exploring the relationship between business model innovation, corporate sustainability, and organizational values within the fashion industry. Journal of business ethics, 149(2), 267-284. DOI:

Peterson, R. S., Smith, D. B., & Martorana, P. V. (2006). Choosing between a rock and a hard place when data are scarce and the questions important: Reply to Hollenbeck, DeRue, and Mannor (2006). DOI:

Podsakoff, N. P., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), 879-903. DOI:

Sachs, J., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G., & Woelm, F. (2022). Sustainable development report 2022. Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Schaltegger, S., Hörisch, J., & Freeman, R. E. (2019). Business cases for sustainability: A stakeholder theory perspective. Organization & Environment, 32(3), 191-212. DOI:

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In Advances in experimental social psychology, 25, 1-65, Academic Press. DOI:

Shahab, Y., Ntim, C. G., Chengang, Y., Ullah, F., & Fosu, S. (2018). Environmental policy, environmental performance, and financial distress in China: Do top management team characteristics matter?. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27(8), 1635-1652. DOI:

Sserwanga, A., Nalukenge, I., Navrud, S., Kaawaase, T., Tumwine, S., & Alinda, K. (2022). Sustainability Practices among Manufacturing Firms in Uganda: An Overview of Challenges and Opportunities. Advances in Research, 1-2. DOI:

Tang, J., Tang, Z., & Cowden, B. J. (2017). Exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, CEO dual values, and SME performance in state–owned vs. nonstate–owned enterprises in China. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(6), 883-908. DOI:

UBOS.(2020). Statistical Abstract. Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 1, 303. documents/abstracts/Statistical Abstract 2013.pdf

Uganda Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Policy (2015). Sustainable MSMEs for Wealth Creation and Socio-Economic Transformation. Ministry of Trade, Industry and Cooperatives. Retrieved from

UNCTAD Annual Report (2021). The Role of Exports in Manufacturing Pollution in Sub–Saharan Africa and South Asia Towards a Better Trade-Environment Governance.

UNEP, U. (2020). Emissions gap report 2020.

Van Mierlo, B., & Beers, P. J. (2020). Understanding and governing learning in sustainability transitions: A review. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 34, 255-269. DOI:

Vihari, N. S., Rao, M. K., & Doliya, P. (2019). Organizational learning as an innovative determinant of Organizational Sustainability: An evidence based approach. International Journal of Innovation Management, 23(03), 1950019. DOI:

Vitale, C., & Cull, M. (2018). Modelling the influence of CEO values and leadership styles on financial decision making. The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 16(1), 16-30.


World Health Organization. (2018). Air pollution and child health: prescribing clean air: summary (No. WHO/CED/PHE/18.01). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Yun, L., Wan, J., Wang, G., Bai, J., & Zhang, B. (2020). Exploring the missing link between top management team characteristics and megaproject performance. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 27(5),1039-1064. DOI: