Defining and Measuring Professionalism in Professions of Service Sector.


  • Hiba Khan Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Mavra Khan Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


Professional, Professionalism, Autonomy, Self-Regulation


The purpose of this paper is intended to measure the degree of professionalism in the professions like doctors, professors, lawyers, librarians, and advertisers. The study will measure the level of professionalism among them on the base of which their expectations for outcomes in the respective fields can be denied or honored.  Moreover, the study will identify problem areas in these professions and opportunities for improving the quality of professional’s work. This study attempts to measure professional’s individual attributes by using questionnaire developed by William Snizek in 1972. This tool measures five factors of professionalism: organization as major referent, belief in public service, belief in self-regulation, sense of calling to the field and autonomy. Professionalism will be measured by calculating means of each factor and collective mean of factors for each profession. The study suggest that all under study professions have professionalism in them but there is room for improvement as well


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Mavra Khan, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

MPhil. student, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, lahore, Pakistan


Abbot, A. (1988). The system of professions: University of Chicago Press.

Arthur G. Bedeian, A. B. P., Rebecca G. Long, Rodger W. Griffeth. (1991). The Measurement and Conceptualization of Career Stages. Journal of Career Development, 17(3), 153-166.

Bloom, S. W. (2002). Professionalism in the practice of medicine. The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 69(6), 398-403.

Baggini, J. (2005). What professionalism means for teachers today. Education Review, 18(2), 5-11.

Burns, D. C., & Haga, W. J. (1977). Much ado about professionalism: A second look at accounting. Accounting Review, 705-715.

Bugher, R. D. (1983). Historians in Professional Associations. The Public Historian, 5(3), 77-83.

Bartol, K. M. (1979). Professionalism as a Predictor of Organizational Commitment, Role Stress and Turnover: A Multidimensional Approach. Academy of Management Journal, 22(4), 815-821.

Bobo, E. M. P. (1979). professionalism of women and men teachers and other professionals as measured by locus of control, achievement, motivation and Hall's professionalism scale. Texas Tech University, Texas.

Carr-Saunders, A. M., & Wilson, P. A. (1933). The Professions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Charles A. O'Reilly III, G. N. P., Joan R. Bloom. (1980). Perceptual Measures of Task Characteristics: The Biasing Effects of Different Frames of Reference and Job Attitudes. The Academy of Management Journal, 23(1), 118-131.

Engel, G. V. (1970). Professional Autonomy and Bureaucratic Organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15(1), 12-21.

Freidson, E. (1994). Professionalism Reborn: Theory, Prophecy and Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fox, C. J. (1992). What do we mean when we say "professionalism?": a language usage analysis for public administration. The American Review of Public Administration, 22(1), 1-17.

FW Hafferty, B. C. (2010). The increasing complexities of professionalism. Academic Medicine, 85(2), 288-301.

Freidson, E. (1973). The Professions and their Prospects. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Goode, W. J. (1961). The Librarian: From Occupation to Profession? The Library Quarterly, 31(4), 306-320.

Greenwood, E. (1957). Attributes of a Profession. Social Work 2(3), 45-55.

Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional Vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606-633.

Gray Southon, J. B. (1998). The end of professionalism? Soc. Sci. Med., 46(1), 23-28.

Gross, E. (1958). Work and Society. New York.

Hall, R. (1968). Professionalism and Bureaucratization. Amercian sociological Revirw, 33, 92-104.

Haywood-Farmer, J., & Ian Stuart, F. (1990). An instrument to measure the ‘degree of professionalism’in a professional service. Service Industries Journal, 10(2), 336-347.

Hamilton, N. (2008). Professionalism clearly defined Professional Lawyers, 18(4), 07-30.

Hooks, K. L. (1992). Professionalism and self interest: a critical view of the expectations gap. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 3(2), 109-136.

Hargreaves, I. G. A. (1996). Teachers' Professional Lives. London: Falmer Press.

Itsekor, V. O. (2011). The role of librarians in the development of education in Nigeria. Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.

Jon, N., Marks, A., Rowland, S., & Walker, M. (2001). Towards a New Academic Professionalism: A Manifesto of Hope. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 22(2), 227-244.

Jernigan, E. E. (1976). Professionalism. Professor and Profession, 24, 213-214.

Johnson, T. J. (1972). Professions and Power. London: The Macmillan Press.

John T. Schnitzius, D. L. (1980). Police Professionals and Job Satisfaction. Psychological Report, 46(2).

Kolsaker, A. (2008). Academic professionalism in the managerialist era: a study of English universities. Studies in Higher Education, 33(5), 513-525.

Keane, J. G. (1974). On Professionalism in Advertising. Journal of Advertising, 3(4), 6-12.

Kennedy, A. (2007). Continuing professional development (CPD) policy and the discourse of teacher professionalism in Scotland. Research Papers in Education, 22(1), 95-111.

Kornhauser, W. (1962). Scientists in Industry: Conflict and Accomodation. Berkeley, CA: University Of California Press.

Larson, M. S. (1977). Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lawrence P. Kalbers, T. J. F. (1995). Professionalism and its consequences: a study of internal auditors. . Journal of Practice and Theory, 14, 64-86.

Leicht, K. T., & Fennell, M. L. (2001). Professional work: A sociological approach: Blackwell Publishers Oxford, England.

Lindblom, C. K., & Ruland, R. G. (1997). Functionalist and conflict views of AICPA Code of Conduct: Public interest vs. self interest. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 573-582.

Lopopolo, R. B. (2002). The relationship of role-related variables to job satisfaction and commitment to the organization in a restructured hospital environment. Physical Therapy, 82(10), 984-999.

Martz, R. K. (1988). Public accounting: which kind of professionalism? . Accounting Horizons, 121-125.

Mercedes S. Tichenor, J. M. T. (2004). Understanding teachers’ perspectives on professionalism. ERIC.

Mohamed Gamal Sabet, D. K. (1993). Exploring The Impact of Professionalism on Administrative Innovation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 3(2), 252-266.

Moncrief, G. F. (1988). Dimensions of the Concept of Professionalism in State Legislatures: A Research Note. state and Local Government Review 20(3), 128-132.

Nik Hazimah Nik Mat, Z. N. Z. (2010). Professionalism in Practices: A Preliminary Study on Malaysian Public Universities. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(8), 138-145.

Parsons, T. (1954). The professions and social structure. In T. Parsons (Ed.), Essays in Sociological Theory (pp. 34-49). New York: Free Press.

Paula C Morrow, J. F. G. J. (1988). Professionalism as a form of work commitment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 32(1), 92-111.

Peter F. Meiksins, J. M. W. (1989). Professional Autonomy and Organizational Constraints The Sociological Quaterly, 30(4), 561-585.

Raelin, J. A. (1986a). An Analysis of Professional Deviance within Organizations. Human Relations, 39(12), 1103-1130.

Roth, J. A. (1974). Professionalism: The Sociologist's Decoy. Sociology of Work and Occupations, 1(1), 6-23.

Rothman, D. J. (2000). Medical professionalism focusing on the real issues1284–6. NEJM, 342(17), 1284–1296.

Savard, R. (1986). Toward a New Model of Professionalism? American Library Association, 25(4), 498-505.

Scott, W. R. (1965). Reactions to Supervision in a Heteronomous Professional Organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10(1), 65-81.

Shafer, W. E., Park, L. J., & Liao, W. M. (2002). Professionalism, organizational-professional conflict and work outcomes: a study of certified management accountants. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 15(1), 46-68.

Snizek, W. E. (1972). Hall's Professionalism Scale: An Empirical Reassessment. Amercian sociological Revirw, 37(1), 109-114.

Taylor, L. (1968). Occupational Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Thomas E Boyt, R. F. L., and Gillian Naylor. (2001). The Role of Professionalism in Determining Job Satisfaction in Professional Services: A Study of Marketing Researchers. Journal of Service Research, 3(4), 321-330.

V.K. Thomas, C. S., J.N. Satpathi. (2010). Emerging challenges in academic librarianship and role of library associations in professional updating. Library Management, 31(9), 594-609.

Wallace, J. E. (2001). Explaining why lawyers want to leave the practice of law. In J. V. Hoy (Ed.), Sociology of crime, law and deviance—Legal professions: Work, structure and organization (Vol. 3, pp. 117–145). London: Elsevier Science.

William E. Shafer;Wood M. Liao, L. J. P. (2002). Professionalism, organizational-professional conflict and work outcomes: a study of certified management accountants. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 15(1), 46-68.

Willmot, H. C. (1989). Serving the public interest: a critical analysis of a professional claim. In T. H. David J. Cooper (Ed.), Critical accounts (pp. 315-331). London: Macmillian.

Wilensky, H. L. (1964). The Professionalism of Everyone? American Journal of Sociology, 69(2), 137-158.

Wong, A., & Chan, A. (2010). Understanding the leadership perceptions of staff in China's hotel industry: Integrating the macro-and micro-aspects of leadership contexts. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), 437-447.

Yoon, H.-G., Yoon, S.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Mun, Y.-B., & Lee, H.-Y. (2008). Job satisfaction, subjective class identification and associated factors of professional socialization in Korean physicians. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 41(1), 30-38.

Zeff, S. A. (1987). Does the CPA belongs to a profession? . Accounting Horizons, 65-78.



How to Cite

Khan, H., & Khan, M. (2018). Defining and Measuring Professionalism in Professions of Service Sector. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 1(2), 20-33.