Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Job Attitudes: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Banking Sector Employees of Pakistan
Keywords:Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Dissonance Theory, SIT (Social Identity Theory), CSR
The study is conducted to highlight the employees’ perspective of CSR in the banking sector of Pakistan and its impact on their job attitudes: job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Primary data were collected from 177 employees working in 22 different banks of Lahore (Pakistan). Stratified random sampling technique was used for sample selection. The population included all the banks in Lahore. Results show the existence of a direct relationship between a) CSR and Organizational Commitment b) CSR and Job Satisfaction.
Ademosu, E. A. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility: The experience of the Nigeria Banking System.
Adrian Wilkinson, M. H. a. P. G. (2001). The sustainability debate. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(12), 1492-1502.
Allen, N., & Meyer, J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-3.
Antoncic JA, A. B. (2011). Employee satisfaction, intrapreneurship and firm growth: a model. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 111(3-4), 589-607.
Ashforth B. E. and Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and organization. Academy of management review, 14, 20-39.
Bacharach, S., Bamberger, P., & Conley, S. . (1991). Work-home conflict among nurses and engineers: Mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 39-53.
Brammer, S., & Millington. (2003). The effect of stakeholder preferences, organizational structure and industry type on corporate community involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 45(3), 213-226.
Brammer, S., A. Millington and B. Rayton. (2005). The Contribution of Corporate Social Responsibility to Organisational Commitment, Working Paper. UK: University of Bath.
Brammer, S., Millington, A., & Rayton, B. (2007). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to organisational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1701-1719.
Brammer, S. J., Millington, A. I., & Pavelin, S. (2006). Is philanthropy strategic? An analysis of the management of charitable giving in large UK companies. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15, 234–245.
Brief, A., & Weiss, H (Ed.). (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. (Vol. 53). Palo Alto: Annual Reviews.
Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. . Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497-505.
Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.
Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of a Definitional Construct. Businees and Society, 38(3), 268-295.
Colquitt, J., Conlon, D., Wesson, M., Porter, C., & Ng, K. . (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. . Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 425-445.
Cook, J. D., Hepworth, S. J., Wall, T. D.,&Warr, P. B. (1981). The experience of work. New York: Academic Press.
Cropanzano, R., Byrne, Z. S., Bobocel, D. R., & Rupp, D. E. (2001). Moral virtues, fairness heuristics, social entities, and other denizens of organizational justice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 164-209.
d’Humières, P. C., A. (2001). Les pionniers de l’entreprise responsable (d ed.). Paris: Organization.
Dunford, S. D. H. B. B. (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility and the Benefits of Employee Trust: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective. Journal Business Ethics, 102, 29–45.
Dutton, J. E., & Dukerich, J. M. (1991). Keeping an eye on the mirror: The role of image and identity in organizational adaptation. Academy of Management Journal,, 34, 517–554.
Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., and Harquail, C. V (1994). Organization images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 230-263.
Dutton, J. E., J. M. Dukerich and J. M. Harquail. (1994). Organizational Images and Member Identification. dministrative Science Quarterly, 39(2), 239–263.
Eisenberg, R., Stinglhalmer, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I., & Rhoades, L. (2002). (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565-573.
Ellemers, N., Kingma, L., van de Burgt, J., & Barreto, M. (2011). Corporate social responsibility as a source of organizational morality, employee commitment and satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Moral Psychology, 1, 97–124.
Ellis, A. D. The impact of corporate social responsibility on employee Attitudes and behaviors. , School of Business. New York.
Eun Mi Lee , S.-Y. P., Hyun Jung Lee. (2012). Employee perception of CSR activities: Its antecedents and consequences. journal of Business Reasearch, 66 1716–1724.
Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.
GAGO, C. C. C., Eduardo Gomes; CAMPOS, Jose Torres; VICENTE, Luiz Moura; SANTOS, Mario Cardoso. (2005). Responsabilidade social das empresas portuguesas: 25 casos de referência. Lisboa: [ S.I. ] : Companhia das Cores, Design e Comunicacao Empresarial, Setembro 2005
Gavin, J. J., & Maynard, W. S. (1975). Perceptions of corporate social responsibility
Personnel Psychology, 28(3), 377–387.
Gomes, D. (2009). Organizational change and job satisfaction: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Exedra, 1, 177-195.
Hulin, C. L., Roznowski, M., & Hachiya, D. (1985). Alternative opportunities and withdrawal decisions: Empirical and theoretical discrepancies and integration. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 233-250.
Imran Ali, K. U. R., Syed Irshad Ali, Jamil Yousaf and Maria Zia. (2010). Corporate social responsibility influences, employee commitment and organizational performance. African Journal of Business Management, 4(12), 2796-2801,.
Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J., & Solomon, P. . (2006). The role of ethical climate on salesperson’s role stress, job attitudes, turnover intention, and job performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 26(3), 271-282.
Jones, D. A. (2010). Does serving the community also serve the company? Using organizational identification and social exchange theories to understand employee responses to a volunteerism program. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 857–878.
Judge, T., & Watanabe, S. (1993). . (1993). Another look at the job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 939-948.
Kim HR, L. M., Lee HT, Kim NM. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and employee-company identification. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(4), 557–569.
Leigh, J. H., Murphy, P. E. & Enis, B. M. . (1988). A New Approach to Measuring Socially Responsible Consumption Tendencies. Journal of Macromarketing, 8(1), 5-20.
Lin, C., Lyau, N., Tsai, Y., Chen, W., & Chiu, C. (2010). Modeling corporate citizenship and its relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 357–372.
Locke, E. (Ed.). (1976). The nature and consequences of job satisfaction. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Lok P, C. J. (2001). Antecedents of organizational commitment and the mediating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(8), 594-613.
Maignan, I. (2001). Consumers’ perceptions of corporate social responsibilities: A cross-cultural comparison. . Journal of Business Ethics, 30, 57-72.
Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. (2001). Corporate citizenship as a marketing instrument. European Journal of Marketing, 35, 457-484.
Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2001). Antecedents and benefits of corporate citizenship: An investigation of French business. Journal of Business Research, 51, 37–51.
Maria João Santos, A. M. S., Elisabete Nobre Pereira and José Luís de Almeida. (2006). Responsabilidade social nas PME: Casos em Portugal. Lisboa: RH Editora.
McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. The Academy of Marketing Review, 26(1), 117–127.
Meyer, J., Stanley, D., Herscovitch, L. & Topolnytsky, L. . (2002). Affective,continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A Meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20-52.
Meyer, J. P. a. N. J. A. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, and Application. Sage, Thousands Oaks, CA.
Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(4), 845-855.
Mowday, R. T., L. W. Porter and R. M. Steers. (1982). Employee Organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover. New York: Academic Press.
Neves, J., & Bento, L. (2005). Portugal. In A. Habisch, M. Wegner, R. Schmidpeter & J. Jonker (Eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility Across Europe (pp. 303-314): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Peterson, D. K. (2004a). The relationship between perceptions of corporate citizenship and organizational commitment. Business and Society, 43, 269–319.
Peterson, D. K. (2004b). The Relationship Between Perceptions of Corporate Citizenship and Organizational Commitment. Business & Society, 43(3), 296–319.
Philip Kotler, N. L. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: Doing the most good for your company and your cause. New Jersey: John Wilson & Sons, Inc.
Porter, M., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). Strategy & society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.
Qinghua Zhu, Y. H., Junjun Liu and Kee-hung Lai. (2012). How is Employee Perception of Organizational Efforts in Corporate Social Responsibility Related to Their Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Developing Harmonious Society in Chinese Enterprises. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management.
Riordan, C. M., Gatewood, R. D., & Bill, J. B. (1997). Corporate image: Employee reactions and implications for managing corporate social performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(1), 401–412.
Rodrigo, P., & Arenas, D. (2008). Do employees care about CSR programs? A typology of employees according to their attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 83, 265-283.
Rodrigo, P., & Arenas, D. (2008). Do employees care about CSR programs? A typology of employee according to their attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 83, 265–283.
Rupp, D., Ganapathi, J., Aguilera, R., & Williams, C. (2006). Employee reactions to corporate social responsibility: An organizational justice framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 537-543.
Saari LM, J. T. (2004). Employee attitudes and job satisfaction. Human Resource Management, 43(4), 395–407.
Sean Valentine, G. F. (2008). Ethics Programs, Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 159–172.
Sen, S., & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2001). Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 225–243.
Sen, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Korschun, D. (2006). The role of corporate social responsibility in strengthening multiple stakeholder relationships: A field experiment. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 158–166.
Sharma, S., & Vredenburg, H. (1998). Proactive corporate environmental strategy and the development of competitively valuable organizational capabilities. . Strategic Management Journal, 19, 729–753.
Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Hulin, C. L. . (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co.
Spector, P. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. CA: Sage.
Tajfel, H. a. J. C. T. (Ed.). (1985). The Social Identity Theory of Group Behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.
Trevino, L. K. a. K. A. N. (2004). Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk about How To Do It Right
(3 ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Publishers.
Turker, D. (2009). How Corporate Social Responsibility Influences Organizational Commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 89, 189–204.
Tuzzolino, F. a. B. R. A. (1981). A Need- Hierarchy Framework for Assessing Corporate Social Responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 21–28.
Vakola, M. a. I. N. (2005). Attitudes Towards Organizational Change: What is the Role of Employees’ Stress and Commitment? Employee Relation, 25(2), 160-174.
Valentine, S., & Fleischman, G. (2008). Professional ethical standards, corporate social responsibility, and the perceived role of ethics and responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 657–666.
Viswesvaran, C., S. P. Deshpande and J. Joseph. (1998). Job Satisfaction as a Function of Top Management Support For Ethical Behavior Journal of Business Ethics 17, 365-371.
Weiss, H. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 173-194.
Windsor, D. (2001). "Corporate Social Responsibility: A Theory of the Firm Perspective": Some Comments. The Academy of Management Review, 26(4), 502-504.
Zheng, D. (2010). The Impact of Employees' Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility on Job Attitudes and Behaviors: A Study in China. Singapore Management University, Singapore.