Contributions of Working Conditions on Teachers’ Attitude in School Settings of Nepal

Main Article Content

Anan Lama
Milan Shrestha


Purpose- Working conditions play an important role in shaping the teachers’ attitude.  In this context, this study intends to examine the effect of the working conditions on the teachers’ attitude.

Design/Methodology- Philosophically, this study is guided by post-positivist paradigm utilizing the survey design. The data in this study were collected from the teachers of community schools of the Kathmandu district using the questionnaire My Classroom Appraisal Protocol (MCAP). The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics like mean, standard deviation, independent sample t-test and simple linear regression. Then, the derived findings were then interpreted and measured against the past studies and theories.   

Findings- This study found significant difference in the attitude of the teachers who had satisfactory and unsatisfactory building conditions.  Additionally, the study showed a moderate association between working condition and teachers’ attitude. Furthermore, this study concludes that the building condition of school plays a crucial role in shaping the teachers’ attitude.  Finally, this study shows that there is a positive relationship between the working conditions and teachers’ attitude.

Practical Implications- This study is expected to be beneficial to school leaders and forthcoming researchers for making positive changes in the education system of Nepal.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Lama, A., & Shrestha, M. (2020). Contributions of Working Conditions on Teachers’ Attitude in School Settings of Nepal. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 3(3), 23-33.
Research Articles

Copyright (c) 2020 Anan Lama, Milan Shrestha

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Abel, M. H., & Sewell, J. (1999). Stress and burnout in rural and urban secondary school teachers. The Journal of Educational Research, 92(5), 287-294. DOI:

Adegbesan, S. O. (2007). Adequacy of school facilities in Nigerian Vocational and Technical Colleges: An Empirical Study. Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and Planning, 7(2), 169-177.

Agyenmang, D. K. (1993). Sociology of education for African students. Accra Black Mask Ltd.

Ahunanya, S. I., & Ubabudu, M. C. M. (2006). Enrolment, facilities and financial allocation in Lagos state higher education: Implication for quality graduates. Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and Planning, 6(1), 153-164.

Asuero, A. G., Sayago, A., & Gonzalez, A. (2006). The Correlation Coefficient: An Overview. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 36, 41-59. DOI:

Bain, S. K., McCallum, R., Bell, S. M., Cochran, J. L., & Sawyer, S. C. (2010). Foreign language learning aptitudes, attitudes, attributions, and achievement of postsecondary students identified as gifted. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22(1), 130-156. DOI:

Buckley, J., Schneider, M., & Shang, Y. (2004). Fix it and they might stay: School facility quality and teacher retention in Washington D.C.. Teachers College Record, 107(5), 1107-1123. DOI:

Corcoran, T. B., Walker, L. J., & White, J. L. (1988). Working in urban schools. Institute for Educational Leadership.

Davis, K., & Newstrom, J. W. (2002). Organizational behavior: human behavior at work (11 ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

District Education Office [DEO]. (2013). Shaikhsik manjari 2070 [Educational collection 2070].

Earthman, G., & Lemasters, L. (2009). Teacher attitudes about classroom conditions. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(3), 323-335. DOI:

Farombi, J. G. (1998). Resource concentration, utilization and management as correlates of students’ learning outcomes: A study in school quality in Oyo state (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Ibadan.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage.

Ghasemi, A., & Zahediasl, S. (2012). Normality test for statistical analysis: A guide for non statisticians. International Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism, 10(2), 486-489. DOI:

Harner, D. P. (1974). Effect of thermal environment on learning skills. The Educational Facility Planner, 12(2), 4-6.

Harthy, S. S. H. A., Jamaluddin, S., & Abedalaziz, N. A. (2013). Teacher’s attitude and performance: An analysis of effects due to teaching experience. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 2(9), 888-893. DOI:

Hecke, T. V. (2010). Power study of anova versus Kruskal-Wallis test. Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, 15(2), 241-247. DOI:

Hertzog, M. A. (2008). Considerations in determining sample size for pilot studies. Research in Nursing and Health, 31, 180-191. DOI:

Heschong Mahone Group (HMG). (1999). Daylighting in schools: An investigation into the relationship between daylighting and human performance.

Isaiah, M. (2003). Linking the school facilities conditions to teachers’ level of job dissatisfaction in the south central region of Botswana. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(2), 196-205.

Jerome, N. (2013). Application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee’s performance. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(31), 39-45.

Kahya, E. (2007). The effect of job characteristics and working conditions on job performance International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37(6), 515-523. DOI:

Knezevich, S. J. (1975). Management of school facilities in administration of public education Harper & Row, Publishers.

Leigh, R. M. (2012). School facility conditions and the relationship between teacher attitudes (Unpublished PhD thesis). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Lewy, A. J., Kern, H. A., Rosenthal, N. E., & Wehr, T. A. (1982). Bright artificial light treatment of a manic-depressive patient with a seasonal mood cycle. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1496-1498. DOI:

Lowe, J. M. (1990). The interface between educational facilities and learning climate (Unpublished PhD thesis). Texas A & M University.

Mantle-Bromley, C. (1995). Positive Attitudes and Realistic Beliefs: Links to Proficiency. The Modern Language Journal 79, 372-386. DOI:

Maslows, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. Harper.

Ministry of Education [MOE]. (2016a). National education accounts in Nepal: Expenditure for education 2009-2015.

Ministry of Education [MOE]. (2016b). School sector development plan 2016-2023.

Morris, R. (2003). The relationship among school facility characteristics, student achievement, and job satisfaction levels among teachers (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Georgia.

Mullins, L. J. (2010). Management and organization behavior. Prentice Hall.

Nichols, A. (2018). The relationship between teacher attitudes regarding performance-related pay and teacher working conditions (Unpublished PhD thesis). Eastern Kentucky University.

Okon, J. E., & Sole, M. A. (2006). Management of the Nigerian primary school plant: Perceptions for Effective Practice. Nigerian Journal of Curriculum Studies, 13(1), 139-146.

Oskamp, S., & Schultz, P. W. (2004). Attitudes and opinions (3rd ed.). Lawrence Eribaum Associates Publishers. DOI:

Parajul, R. D., & Das, T. (2013). Performance of community schools in Nepal: A macro level analysis. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 2(7), 148-154.

Phanice, K. (2017). Influence of school environment on job satisfaction of public secondary school teachers in Bungoma south sub county, Kenya (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Nairobi.

Rattray, J., & Jones, M. C. (2007). Essential elements of questionnaire design development. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 234-243. DOI:

Ruszala, J. (2007). The conditions of the high school facilities in the commonwealth of Virginia’s metropolitan school divisions and the relationship to teacher satisfaction (Unpublished PhD thesis). The George Washington University.

Schneider, M. (2003). Linking school facility conditions with teacher satisfaction success. National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

Sreejech, S., Mohanpatra, S., & Anusree, M. R. (2014). Business research method: An applied orientation. Springer.

Subedi, B. P. (2017). Relationship between head teacher leadership attributes and school climate in community schools of Nepal (Unpublished PhD thesis). Kathmandu University School of Education.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.

Timalsina, T. P. (2008). School effectiveness with preference to the public and private schools in Nepal (Unpublished MPhil dissertation). Kathmandu University School of Education.

Treece, E. W., & Treece, J. W. (1982). Elements of research in nursing (3rd ed.). Mosby.

Wagley, D. (2012). Dropout of children from schools in Nepal. Norwegian Centre for Child Research: Norwegian University.

Yamane, T. (1967). Elementary sampling theory. Prentice-Hall.