Undergraduate Students’ Entrepreneurial Attitude and Self-employment Intentions The Conditional Effect of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy

Main Article Content

Moses Kisame Kisubi


Purpose – the study aimed at determining the interactive effect of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy on students’ self-employment intentions.

Design/ methodology – to attain the purpose of the study, cross-sectional and explanatory research designs were employed. Systematic sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a sample of 458 undergraduate finalists from Makerere and Kyambogo Universities in Uganda. Data were analyzed using Hayes (2018) Process macro version 3.2 (Model 1) with the help of SPSS version 23

Results – the study indicates that entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy significantly and positively influence self-employment intentions. Further, a negative and significant conditional effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and self-employment intentions was established.

Implications – theoretically, the study contributes to the extant literature by providing new insights on the interactive effect of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy on students’ self-employment intentions. We also provide practical implications to educators, curriculum developers, and university management in developing appropriate training tools for students driven by first ascertaining their levels of self-efficacy.

Originality/value – The study provides new insights on the conditional effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the relationship between entrepreneurial attitude and self-employment intentions.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kisubi, M. K. (2021). Undergraduate Students’ Entrepreneurial Attitude and Self-employment Intentions: The Conditional Effect of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy. SEISENSE Business Review, 1(2), 48–58. https://doi.org/10.33215/sbr.v1i2.626


Afolabi, M. O., Kareem, F. A., Okubanjo, I. O., Ogunbanjo, O. A., & Aninkan, O. O. (2017). Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Self-Employment Initiatives among Nigerian Science & Technology Students. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(15), 44-51.

Ajzen, I. (1991a). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (1991b). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 27-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.27

Ajzen, I. (2011). The theory of planned behavior: Reactions and reflections: Taylor & Francis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.613995

Ajzen, I. (2013). Theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Measurement instrument database for the social science, 2-9.

Alharbi, J., Almahdi, H., & Mosbah, A. (2018). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programs (EEPs) on the Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Higher Education Students. International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, 7(3), 245-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32327/IJMESS.7.3.2018.16

Ayalew, M. M., & Zeleke, S. A. (2018). Modeling the impact of entrepreneurial attitude on self-employment intention among engineering students in Ethiopia. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 7(1), 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-018-0088-1

Baluku, M. M., Bantu, E., & Otto, K. (2018). Effect of Locus of Control on Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Self-Employment Intentions: The Moderating Role of Individualism. Journal of enterprising culture, 26(03), 251-283. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495818500103

Baluku, M. M., Leonsio, M., Bantu, E., & Otto, K. (2018). The impact of autonomy on the relationship between mentoring and entrepreneurial intentions among youth in Germany, Kenya, and Uganda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-10-2017-0373

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 248-287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L

Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2017). Entrepreneurial motivation and self-employment: evidence from expectancy theory. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13(4), 1097-1115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0441-z

Bosompem, M., Dadzie, S. K., & Tandoh, E. (2017). Undergraduate Students’ Willingness to Start Own Agribusiness Venture after Graduation: A Ghanaian Case Entrepreneurship Education: New Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education (pp. 75-105): Emerald Publishing Limited. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-724620170000007009

Boukamcha, F. (2015). Impact of training on entrepreneurial intention: an interactive cognitive perspective. European Business Review, 27(6), 593-616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-12-2014-0090

Chen, M.-F. (2015). Self-efficacy or collective efficacy within the cognitive theory of stress model: Which more effectively explains people's self-reported pro-environmental behavior? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 66-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2015.02.002

De Noble, A., Jung, D., & Ehrlich, S. (1999). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: The development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurial action (Paper). Babson Park, MA: Babson College. Document Number.

Dheer, R. J., & Lenartowicz, T. (2018). Multiculturalism and entrepreneurial intentions: Understanding the mediating role of cognitions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 42(3), 426-466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12260

Farashah, D. A. (2013). The process of impact of entrepreneurship education and training on entrepreneurship perception and intention: Study of the educational system of Iran. Education+ Training, 55(8/9), 868-885. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-04-2013-0053

Hennessy, M., Bleakley, A., & Fishbein, M. (2012). Measurement models for reasoned action theory. The annals of the American academy of political and social science, 640(1), 42-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716211424709

International labor organization (2015). Self-employment programs for young people: A review of the context, policies, and evidence: international labor office Geneva

Ismail, A. (2015). The entrepreneurial attitude and intentions of newly enrolled university students–Issues and policy implications.

Ismail, N., Jaffar, N., & Hooi, T. S. (2013). Using EAO model to predict the self-employment intentions among the Universities' Undergraduates in Malaysia. International Journal of Trade, Economics, and Finance, 4(5), 282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJTEF.2013.V4.302

Jimmieson, N. L. (2000). Employee reactions to behavioral control under conditions of stress: The moderating role of self-efficacy. Work & Stress, 14(3), 262-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370010015343

Kim-Soon, N., Ahmad, A. R., & Ibrahim, N. N. (2014). Entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurship career intention: Case at a Malaysian Public University. Crafting Global Competitive Economies, 2020, 1001-1011.

Kolvereid, L. (2016). Preference for self-employment: Prediction of new business start-up intentions and efforts. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 17(2), 100-109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1465750316648576

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0

Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 33(3), 593-617. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x

Liñán, F., & Rodríguez‐Cohard, J. C. (2015). Assessing the stability of graduates’ entrepreneurial intention and exploring its predictive capacity. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 28(1), 77-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ARLA-06-2013-0071

Mahendra, A. M., Djatmika, E. T., & Hermawan, A. (2017). The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention Mediated by Motivation and Attitude among Management Students, State University of Malang, Indonesia. International Education Studies, 10(9), 61-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n9p61

Majogoro, K., & Mgabo, M. R. (2012). Self-employment intention among university students: testing Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB). International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 2(8), 67-84.

Margahana, H., & Negara, S. T. (2019). Self-efficacy, self-personality, and self-confidence on entrepreneurial intention: study on young enterprises. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 22(1).

Mijoč, J., Stanić, M., & Horvat, J. (2016). Measuring attitudes in the self-employment intention model: methodological considerations. Croatian Operational Research Review, 7(2), 333-348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17535/crorr.2016.0023

Nabi, G., & Holden, R. (2008). Graduate entrepreneurship: intentions, education, and training. Education+ Training, 50(7), 545-551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910810909018

National Council for Higher Education (2018).The State of Higher Education and Training in Uganda 2015/16: A Report on Higher Education Delivery and Institutions.

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd edit.) McGraw-hill. Hillsdale, NJ, 416.

Odewale, G. T., Hani, S. H. A., Migiro, S. O., & Adeyeye, P. O. (2019). Entrepreneurship education and students' views on self-employment among international postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 22(1).

Oghazi, P., Jung, M., Peighambari, K., & Tretten, P. (2009). What makes people want to become self-employed? Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Advances in Management, 2(11), 9-18.

Robledo, J. L. R., Arán, M. V., Sanchez, V. M., & Molina, M. Á. R. (2015). The moderating role of gender on entrepreneurial intentions: A TPB perspective. Intangible Capital, 11(1), 92-117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3926/ic.557

Saraih, U. N., Aris, A. Z. Z., Mutalib, S. A., Ahmad, T. S. T., & Amlus, M. H. (2018). Examining The Relationships between Attitude Towards Behaviour, Subjective Norms and Entrepreneurial Intention among Engineering Students. Paper presented at the MATEC Web of Conferences. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815005011

Schmutzler, J., Andonova, V., & Diaz-Serrano, L. (2018). How context shapes entrepreneurial self-efficacy as a driver of entrepreneurial intentions: A multilevel approach. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 1042258717753142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258717753142

Shahab, Y., Chengang, Y., Arbizu, A. D., & Haider, M. J. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: do entrepreneurial creativity and education matter? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 25(2), 259-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2017-0522

Shook, C. L., & Bratianu, C. (2010). Entrepreneurial intent in a transitional economy: an application of the theory of planned behavior to Romanian students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 231-247. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-008-0091-2

Soomro, B. A., & Shah, N. (2015). Developing attitudes and intentions among potential entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(2), 304-322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JEIM-07-2014-0070

Tognazzo, A., Gianecchini, M., & Gubitta, P. (2017). Educational Context and Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students: An Italian Study Entrepreneurship Education: New Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education (pp. 47-74): Emerald Publishing Limited. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-724620170000007008

Torres, F. C., Méndez, J. C. E., Barreto, K. S., Chavarría, A. P., Machuca, K. J., & Guerrero, J. A. O. (2017). Exploring entrepreneurial intentions in Latin American university students. International Journal of Psychological Research, 10(2), 46-59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.2794

UBOS (2017), Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 2017 Statistical Abstract, Uganda Bureau of Statistics, Kampala, Uganda.

Usman, B. (2019). Understanding the entrepreneurial intention among international students in Turkey. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), 10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-018-0136-0

Wang, J.-H., Chang, C.-C., Yao, S.-N., & Liang, C. (2016). The contribution of self-efficacy to the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention. Higher Education, 72(2), 209-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9946-y

Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An introductory analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.

Yang, S., Wang, B., & Lu, Y. (2016). Exploring the dual outcomes of mobile social networking service enjoyment: The roles of social self-efficacy and habit. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 486-496. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.07.010

Yıldırım, N., Çakır, Ö., & Aşkun, O. B. (2016). Ready to dare? A case study on the entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 277-288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.138

Zhang, X., Han, X., Dang, Y., Meng, F., Guo, X., & Lin, J. (2017). User acceptance of mobile health services from users’ perspectives: The role of self-efficacy and response-efficacy in technology acceptance. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 42(2), 194-206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17538157.2016.1200053