Main Article Content
Purpose- Organizations that enforce effective supervisory support through their cultural traits see their employees reciprocating through positive outcomes. The study explored the impact of supervisory support on employee engagement in Ghana’s telecommunications sector and the moderating effect of supportive organizational culture on the relationship.
Design/Methodology- A correlational descriptive research design was adopted. A sample of three hundred and fifty-three (353) employees was drawn randomly from a top selected telecommunication company in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana. Information collated were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 26) and partial least square based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
Findings- The findings indicate that supervisory support significantly influences employee engagement. Again it was revealed that supportive organizational culture influences employee engagement and substantially moderates the relationship between supervisory support and employee engagement.
Practical Implications- The findings provide valuable suggestions for organizations, managers, and supervisors to emphasize on measures such as a robust feedback system, training of supervisors, and enhancing employees' freedom to operate within the organization, which increases employee engagement and optimizing the organization’s competitive advantage.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ahakwa, I., Tackie, E. A., Odai, L. A., Dartey, S., & Yang, J. (2021). The Effects of Job Autonomy, Organizational Learning, and Work Environment on Organizational Commitment of Public Sector Employees in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Article in International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v9i1.em02 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v9i1.em02
Ahmad, A., Bibi, P., & Majid, A. H. A. (2016). Co-worker support as moderator on the relationship between compensation and transactional leadership in organizational commitment. International Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(4), 695–709.
Aksoy, C., & Yalçınsoy, A. (2017). Investigation on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Justice and Supervisor Support: an Application in the Health Sector. Journal of Management Research, 10(1), 26. https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v10i1.12074 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v10i1.12074
Al Shehri, M., McLaughlin, P., Al-Ashaab, A., & Hamad, R. (2017). The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Engagement in Saudi Banks. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, 2017, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.5171/2017.761672 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5171/2017.761672
Ashley, N. (2018). ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT IN A BANKING ENVIRONMENT IN GHANA A dissertation submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Commerce in Human Resource Management School of Management, IT and Governance College of Law and Management Studies. https://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/handle/10413/18270
Asiedu, E. (2015). Supportive Organizational Culture and Employee Job Satisfaction: A Critical Source of Competitive Advantage. A Case Study in a Selected Banking Company in Oxford, a City in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 04(07). https://doi.org/10.4172/2162-6359.1000272 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2162-6359.1000272
Bakker, A. B. (2011). An Evidence-Based Model of Work Engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411414534 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411414534
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83–104. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20004
Barbara, B., Alberto, P., & Dormio, A. I. (2005). Organizational socialization, career aspirations and turnover intentions among design engineers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(6), 424–441. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730510617645
Berson, Y., Oreg, S., & Dvir, T. (2008). CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(5), 615–633. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.499
Brenyah, R. S., & Darko, T. O. (2017). Organisational Culture and Employee Engagement within the Ghanaian Public Sector. Review of Public Administration and Management, 05(03). https://doi.org/10.4172/2315-7844.1000233 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2315-7844.1000233
Burke, M. J., Borucki, C. C., & Hurley, A. E. (1992). Reconceptualizing Psychological Climate in a Retail Service Environment: A Multiple-Stakeholder Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 717–729. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.5.717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.5.717
Cameron, K., & Quinn, R. (2011). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework.
Chalofsky, N. E. (2010). Meaningful Workplaces: Reframing How and Where we Work | Wiley.
Chin, W. W., Peterson, R. A., & Brown, S. P. (2008). Structural equation modeling in marketing: Some practical reminders. In Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice (Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 287–298). https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679160402 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679160402
Cohen, S. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. - PsycNET. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 31–67. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1988-98838-002
Dapke, D., & Patole, S. (2014). Predicting Employee Engagement: Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Perceived Superior Support. Tactful Management Research Journal, 3(1), 1–8.
Deconinck, J., & Johnson, J. (2009). The effects of perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and organizational justice on turnover among salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 29(4), 333–350. https://doi.org/10.2753/PSS0885-3134290403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/PSS0885-3134290403
Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565–573. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.565 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.565
Gallup. (2002). “The high cost of disengaged employees.
Hair jr, Joseph F; Hult, G Tomas M; Ringle, Christian; Sarstedt, M. (2016). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) | SAGE Publications Inc. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/a-primer-on-partial-least-squares-structural-equation-modeling-pls-sem/book244583
Hallberg, U. E., Johansson, G., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). Personality and Social Sciences Type A behavior and work situation: Associations with burnout and work engagement. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 135–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00584.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00584.x
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., Sanders, G., Administrative, S., Quarterly, S., & Jun, N. (1990). Administrative Science Quarterly,. 35(2), 286–316. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2393392
Holland, P., Cooper, B., & Sheehan, C. (2017). Employee Voice, Supervisor Support, and Engagement: The Mediating Role of Trust. Human Resource Management, 56(6), 915–929. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21809 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21809
J., A. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 308–323. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2013-0008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2013-0008
Kahn, W. A. (1990). PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF PERSONAL ENGAGEMENT AND DISENGAGEMENT AT WORK. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. https://doi.org/10.2307/256287 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/256287
Kapoor, S., & Meachem, A. (2012). Employee Engagement-A Bond between Employee and Organisation Human Resource Management / Behavioural Science View project Employee Engagement-A Bond between Employee and Organisation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303641091
Khazanchi, S., Lewis, M. W., & Boyer, K. K. (2007). Innovation-supportive culture: The impact of organizational values on process innovation. Journal of Operations Management, 25(4), 871–884. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2006.08.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2006.08.003
Kline, R. B. (2011). Convergence of Structural Equation Modeling and Multilevel Modeling. In The SAGE Handbook of Innovation in Social Research Methods (pp. 562–589). SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446268261.n31 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446268261.n31
Kristof, A. M. Y. L. (1996). PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIE AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW OF ITS CONCEPTUALIZATIONS , MEASUREMENT , AND IMPLICATIONS. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb01790.x
Kumi, E., Yeboah, T., & Kumi, Y. A. (2020). Private sector participation in advancing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Ghana: Experiences from the mining and telecommunications sectors. Extractive Industries and Society, 7(1), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.12.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.12.008
Ladebo, O. J. (2008). Perceived Supervisory Support and Organisational Citizenship Behaviours: Is Job Satisfaction a Mediator? South African Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 479–488. https://doi.org/10.1177/008124630803800303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/008124630803800303
London, M. (1993). Relationships between career motivation, empowerment and support for career development. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 66(1), 55–69. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00516.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1993.tb00516.x
Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The Meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2007.0002.x
Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S. (2000). Forthcoming in the Academy of Management Journal Integrating Justice and Social Exchange 1 Forthcoming in the Academy of Management Journal Integrating Justice and Social Exchange 2. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 738–748. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1556364
Mohamed, S. A., & Ali, M. (2016). The Impacts of Supervisor Support on Employees’ Engagement. International Journal of Research & Review (Www.Gkpublication.In), 3(March), 3. www.ijrrjournal.com
Njuguna, R. G. (2016). Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Work Behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies, 3(11), 46–58.
O’Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: A PROFILE COMPARISON APPROACH TO ASSESSING PERSON-ORGANIZATION FIT. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 487–516. https://doi.org/10.5465/256404 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/256404
Ocampo, R. C. De, Danao, H. N., & Peña, A. M. (2018). The Relationship Of Perceived Organizational Support And Perceived Supervisor Support To Work Engagement Among BPO-RPO Employees. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 2(9), 97–105.
Ohemeng, F. L. K., Obuobisa Darko, T., & Amoako‐Asiedu, E. (2020). Employee engagement and task performance in state‐owned enterprises in developing countries: The case study of the power sector in Ghana. Journal of Public Affairs, 20(2), e2021. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2021
Othman, A. K., Hamzah, M. I., Abas, M. K., & Zakuan, N. M. (2017). International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences The influence of leadership styles on employee engagement : The moderating effect of communication styles. 4(3), 107–116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2017.03.017
Otken, A. B., & Erben, G. S. (2010). INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND WORK Abstract : İLİŞKİNİN VE AMİR DESTEĞİNİN ROLÜNÜN İNCELENMESİ Öz : 2, 93–118.
Rabiul, M., & Rubel, B. (2013). Perceived Support and Employee Performance : The Mediating Role of Employee Engagement. January.
Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169
Sattavorn, S. (2018). The impact of career satisfaction, commitment and supervisory support on organizational commitment of Thai Employees: A study in Japanese subsidiaries. Proceedings of 2018 5th International Conference on Business and Industrial Research: Smart Technology for Next Generation of Information, Engineering, Business and Social Science, ICBIR 2018, June, 344–349. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBIR.2018.8391219 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBIR.2018.8391219
Sawasdee, A., Saengchai, S., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2020). The role of emotional demands, supervisor support and training opportunities towards work engagement among employees in pharmaceutical companies of Thailand. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(3), 176–184. https://doi.org/10.5530/srp.2020.3.20
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Utrecht work engagement scale Preliminary Manual Version 1.1. Occupational Health Psychology Unit Utrecht University, December, 1–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/t01350-000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t01350-000
Schaufeli, Wilmar B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248
Schein, E. H. (1996). Culture : The Missing Concept in Studies Organization. 41(2), 229–240. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2393715
Seijts, G., & Crim, D. (2006). What engages employees the most or, the ten C’s of employee engagement. Ivey Business Journal, 23(April), 1–6. http://www.hrpld.ca/newsletters/May2007/EEEngagement.pdf%5Cnhttp://jsedres.sepmonline.org/content/23/3/143.abstract
Shmueli, G., Sarstedt, M., Hair, J. F., Cheah, J. H., Ting, H., Vaithilingam, S., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). Predictive model assessment in PLS-SEM: guidelines for using PLSpredict. European Journal of Marketing, 53(11), 2322–2347. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-02-2019-0189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-02-2019-0189
Shuck, B., & Reio, T. G. (2014). Employee Engagement and Well-Being. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(1), 43–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813494240 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051813494240
Shusha, A. (2013). The Role of Psychological Engagement in Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Withdrawal Behavior and Intentions: An Empirical Study on Small Industries in The Role of Psychological Engagement in Relationship between Perceived Organiza. Article in International Journal of Business and Management, 8(16). https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v8n16p22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v8n16p22
Swanberg, J. E., McKechnie, S. P., Ojha, M. U., & James, J. B. (2011). Schedule control, supervisor support and work engagement: A winning combination for workers in hourly jobs? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(3), 613–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.04.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.04.012
Vera, M., Martínez, I. M., Lorente, L., & Chambel, M. J. (2016). The Role of Co-worker and Supervisor Support in the Relationship Between Job Autonomy and Work Engagement Among Portuguese Nurses: A Multilevel Study. Social Indicators Research, 126(3), 1143–1156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-0931-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-0931-8
Wallach, E. J. (1983). Individuals and Organizations: The Cultural Match. In Training & Development Journal (Vol. 37, Issue 2, pp. 28–36). http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=9228168&site=ehost-live
Warrick, D. D., Milliman, J. F., & Ferguson, J. M. (2016). Building high performance cultures. Organizational Dynamics, 45(1), 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2015.12.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2015.12.008