Assessing the Impact of Work Environment on Employee Engagement among Non-Academic Staff of the University

Main Article Content

Yusuf Nasidi
A. U. Makera
A. M. Kamaruddeen
I. M. Jemaku


Aim of the Study - The objective of this study was to access the impact of work environment on employee engagement among the non-academic staffs of the university in Nigeria. Social exchange theory (SET) was utilized in developing the research framework. 

Methodology - A total of 150 non-academics staff from l University, representing a response rate of 63.3% participated in this study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The correlation and the hypothesis were tested using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 2.0). The Cronbach’s Alpha value for the variables ranging from 0.724 to 0.804 indicates very good reliability of the research instrument. 

Findings - The findings indicate a moderate relationship between the work environment and employee engagement, and the hypothesis is not supported.  

Practical Implications - The study will provide direction to both the management and the university staff for them to proactively focus on providing a healthy and comfortable working environment that will boost engagement, which lead towards enhancing the performance of university staff, and also the university administrators in various ways.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Nasidi, Y., Makera, A. U., Kamaruddeen, A. M., & Jemaku, I. M. (2019). Assessing the Impact of Work Environment on Employee Engagement among Non-Academic Staff of the University. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 2(1), 57–68.
Business Management

Copyright (c) 2019 Yusuf Nasidi, A. U. Makera, A. M. Kamaruddeen, I. M. Jemaku

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Akinwale, A. A. (2011). Labor reform and industrial conflicts mismanagement in Nigeria. Journal of Political Economy October, 11-23.

American Society of Interior Designers, Armstrong world Industries, Steelcase, Inc.,

Alderfer, C. P. (1972). Existence, relatedness, and growth: Human needs in organizational settings.

Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 22(3), 187-200. DOI:

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). Transformational leadership development: Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Consulting Psychologists Press.

Bhatla, N. (2011). To study the Employee Engagement practices and its effect on employee performance with special reference to ICICI and HDFC Bank in Lucknow. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 2(8), 1-7.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.

Buckingham M., and Coffman C. (2005). First, break all the rules. Pocket Books, London.

Clements-Croome, D. J. (1997). Specifying indoor climate. Naturally Ventilated Buildings, E & FN Spon (Chapman & Hall), ISBN 0419215204, 35, 91.

Chandrasekar, K. (2011). Workplace environment and its impact on organizational performance in public sector organizations. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems, 1(1), 1-19.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research, 295(2), 295-336.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hilsdale. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, 2.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 53(6), 1024. DOI:

Development Dimensions International. (2005). Predicting Employee Engagement MRKSRR12-1005.

Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. University of Akron Press.

Frauenheim, E. (2006). Study: Workers are disengaged but staying put. Workforce Management, 85(22)6.

Gallup (2002), “The high cost of disengaged employees”, Gallup Business Journal, April 15, available at: (accessed 22 February 2017).

Gallup Organization (2008). What your disaffected workers cost. Gullup Management Journal. Retrieved from

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign.

Hain, C A, & Francis, L. (2004). Development and Validation o f a Coworker Relationship Scale. Poster session presented at the 65th Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Newfoundland, Canada.

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of school psychology, 43(6), 495-513. DOI:

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective (Seventh Edition ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Person Education Inc.

Hair, J., Celsi, M., Money, A., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2011). Essentials of business research methods (2nd edition ed.): ME Sharpe Inc.

Hair Jr, J. F., & Lukas, B. (2014). Marketing research (Vol. 2). McGraw-Hill Education Australia.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. DOI:

Holbeche, L. and Springett, N. (2003), In Search of Meaning in the Workplace, Horsham, Roffey Park Institute, ISBN: 0 907416527.

Islam, S., & Syed Shazali, S. T. (2011). Determinants of manufacturing productivity: pilot study on labor-intensive industries. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 60(6), 567-582. DOI:

Joarder, M. H., & Sharif, M. Y. (2011). The role of HRM practices in predicting faculty turnover intention: empirical evidence from private universities in Bangladesh. The South East Asian Journal of Management, 5(2), 159.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of management journal, 33(4), 692-724.

Kohun, S. (1992). Business environment. Ibadan: University Press Kyko OC (2005). Instrumentation: Know yourself and Others Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2003) 3rd editions: Harloa Pearson Educational Limited.

Leshabari, M. T., Muhondwa, E. P., Mwangu, M. A., & Mbembati, N. A. (2008). Motivation of health care workers in Tanzania: a case study of Muhimbili National Hospital. East African Journal of Public Health, 5(1), 32-37. DOI:

Lockwood, N. R. (2005). Employee engagement. SHRM Research Briefly Stated. Retrieved January, 27, 2008.

Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3-30. DOI:

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 77(1), 11-37. Metha, D. and Metha, N. (2013) Employee Engagement: A Literature Review. Economic Seria Management, 16, 208-215.

Metha, D. and Metha, N. (2013) Employee Engagement: A Literature Review. Economic Seria Management, 16, 208-215.

Miles, E. L., Andresen, S., Carlin, E. M., Skjærseth, J. B., Underdal, A., & Wettestad, J. (2001). Environmental regime effectiveness: confronting theory with evidence. Mit Press. DOI:

Morrison, A. M. (1996). Hospitality and travel marketing (No. Ed. 2). Delmar Publishers.

Nathan, R. M. (2004). Impact of Servant-Leadership on Employee Engagement and Workplace Productivity. Argosy University, MBA.

Nik Muhammad, N.M., Jantan, M., & Md 'Taib, F. (2010). Moderating effect of informatation processing capacity to investment decision making and environmental scaning. Business Management Quartely Review 1(1), 9-22.

Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (5. uppl.). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.

Pallant, J., (2011). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS program. England: McGraw Hill Open University Press

Perrin, T. (2009). Employee engagement underpins business transformation.

Popli, S., & Rizvi, I. A. (2016). Drivers of employee engagement: The role of leadership style. Global Business Review, 17(4), 965-979. DOI:

Ram, G. V. P. P. (2011). Antecedent HRM practices for organizational commitment. International journal of business and social science, 2(2).

Rampersad, H. (2006). Self‐examination as the road to sustaining employee engagement and personal happiness. Performance improvement, 45(8), 18-25. DOI:

Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of management journal, 53(3), 617-635. DOI:

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation. Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes, 1(3), 1-16. DOI:

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of managerial psychology, 21(7), 600-619. DOI:

Snape, E., & Redman, T. (2010). HRM practices, organizational citizenship behaviour, and performance: A multi‐level analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 47(7), 1219-1247. DOI:

Sibanda, P., Muchena, T., & Ncube, F. (2014). Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance in A Public Sector Organisation in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 4(1), 89-99.

Song, J., Kolb, J. A., Lee, U., & Kim, H. (2012). Role of transformational leadership in efective organizational knowledge creation practices: Mediating efects of employees’ work engagement. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(1), 65–101. DOI:

Sousa-Poza, A., & Sousa-Poza, A. A. (2000). Well-being at work: a cross-national analysis of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction. The journal of socio-economics, 29(6), 517-538. DOI:

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences (Vol. 3). Sage publications. DOI:

Susi, S. & Jawaharrani, K. (2011). Work-Life Balance: The key driver of employee engagement. Asian Journal of management Research, 2(1).

Taufek, F. H. B. M., Zulkifle, Z. B., & Sharif, M. Z. B. M. (2016). Sustainability in Employment: Reward System and Work Engagement.Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 699-704. DOI:

Yu, C., & Frenkel, S. J. (2013). Explaining task performance and creativity from perceived organizational support theory: Which mechanisms are more important? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(8), 1165-1181. DOI: