Entrepreneurial Training and Entrepreneurial Intentions A Mediated Mediation Analysis of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy and Attitude of Undergraduate Finalists in Uganda

Main Article Content

Moses Kisame Kisubi
Michael Korir


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the association between Entrepreneurial Training and Entrepreneurial Intentions is mediated by (1) Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, (2) Entrepreneurial Attitude, and (3) whether the first mediation is further mediated by Entrepreneurial Attitude.

Design – to attain the study objectives, a cross-sectional and explanatory survey approach was employed. Systematic sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a sample of 458 final-year undergraduate students from two Ugandan public universities.

Results – a significant partial mediation effect of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Attitude between Entrepreneurship Training and Entrepreneurial Intentions was established and a mediated mediation effect.

Implications – the study provides maiden evidence that Entrepreneurial Training and Entrepreneurial Intentions are significantly and serially mediated by Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Attitude. Managers and policymakers may use this study results to further student’s entrepreneurial competencies. Society may also use our results to support entrepreneurial ventures as a vehicle for creating jobs for graduates

Originality/value – the novelty of this paper is threefold; it provides evidence on the mediating role of; (1) entrepreneurial self-efficacy, (2) entrepreneurial attitude, and (3) we provide initial evidence on the mediated mediation effect of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Attitude in the relationship between Entrepreneurial Training and Entrepreneurial Intentions.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Kisubi, M. K., & Korir, M. (2021). Entrepreneurial Training and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Mediated Mediation Analysis of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy and Attitude of Undergraduate Finalists in Uganda. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 4(3), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v4i3.638
Business Management

Copyright (c) 2021 Moses Kisame Kisubi, Michael Korir

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Abdullahi, A. I., Zainol, F. A., Daud, W. N. W., & Yazid, A. S. (2017). Entrepreneurial Intention Revisited: Measuring the Impact of Socio-Cultural Business Environment using Structural Equation Modeling. World Applied Sciences Journal, 35(8), 1445-1456.

Ajzen, I. (1991a). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (1991b). The theory of planned behavior. Orgnizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 27-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.27

Ajzen, I. (2011). The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections: Taylor & Francis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.613995

Ajzen, I. (2013). Theory of planned behaviour questionnaire. Measurement instrument database for the social science, 2-9.

Alharbi, J., Almahdi, H., & Mosbah, A. (2018). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programs (EEPs) on the Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Higher Education Students. International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, 7(3), 245-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32327/IJMESS.7.3.2018.16

Bae, T. J., Qian, S., Miao, C., & Fiet, J. O. (2014). The relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions: A meta–analytic review. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 38(2), 217-254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12095

Baluku, M. M., Leonsio, M., Bantu, E., & Otto, K. (2018). The impact of autonomy on the relationship between mentoring and entrepreneurial intentions among youth in Germany, Kenya, and Uganda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-10-2017-0373

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9), 1175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175

Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 248-287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-self efficacy: The exercise of control: New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 1-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied psychology, 51(2), 269-290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00092

Bandura, A. (2005). The evolution of social cognitive theory. Great minds in management, 9-35.

Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication Media effects (pp. 110-140): Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203877111-12

Barbosa, S. D., Gerhardt, M. W., & Kickul, J. R. (2007). The role of cognitive style and risk preference on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13(4), 86-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/10717919070130041001

Conway, J. M., & Lance, C. E. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 325-334. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9181-6

De Noble, A., Jung, D., & Ehrlich, B. (1999). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: the development of a measure and its relationship to entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 18(4), 63-77.

Dehghanpour Farashah, A. (2013). The process of impact of entrepreneurship education and training on entrepreneurship perception and intention: Study of educational system of Iran. Education+ Training, 55(8/9), 868-885. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-04-2013-0053

Ebewo, P. E., Shambare, R., & Rugimbana, R. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions of Tshwane University of Technology, Arts and Design students. African Journal of Business Management, 11(9), 175-182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM2017.8253

Edwards-Schachter, M., García-Granero, A., Sánchez-Barrioluengo, M., Quesada-Pineda, H., & Amara, N. (2015). Disentangling competences: Interrelationships on creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 16, 27-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2014.11.006

Gelaidan, H. M., & Abdullateef, A. O. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions of business students in Malaysia: the role of self-confidence, educational and relation support. Journal of small business and Enterprise Development, 24(1), 54-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-06-2016-0078

Gindling, T. H., & Newhouse, D. (2012). Self-employment in the developing world: The World Bank. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-6201

Gorgievski, M. J., Stephan, U., Laguna, M., & Moriano, J. A. (2018). Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of career assessment, 26(3), 457-475. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072717714541

Hair, J., Hollingsworth, C. L., Randolph, A. B., & Chong, A. Y. L. (2017). An updated and expanded assessment of PLS-SEM in information systems research. Industrial Management & Data Systems. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-04-2016-0130

Harinie, L. T., Sudiro, A., Rahayu, M., & Fatchan, A. (2017). Study of the Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory for the entrepreneurship learning process. Social Sciences, 6(1), 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ss.20170601.11

Hattab, H. W. (2014). Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Egypt. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0971355713513346

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85(1), 4-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100

Hennessy, M., Bleakley, A., & Fishbein, M. (2012). Measurement models for reasoned action theory. The annals of the American academy of political and social Science, 640(1), 42-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716211424709

Ismail, N., Jaffar, N., & Hooi, T. S. (2013). Using EAO model to predict the self-employment intentions among the Universities' Undergraduates in Malaysia. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 4(5), 282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJTEF.2013.V4.302

Joensuu, S., Viljamaa, A., Varamäki, E., & Tornikoski, E. (2013). Development of entrepreneurial intention in higher education and the effect of gender–a latent growth curve analysis. Education+ Training, 55(8/9), 781-803. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-06-2013-0084

Karlsson, T., & Moberg, K. (2013). Improving perceived entrepreneurial abilities through education: Exploratory testing of an entrepreneurial self efficacy scale in a pre-post setting. The International Journal of Management Education, 11(1), 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2012.10.001

Kisubi, M., Korir, M., & Bonuke, R. (2021). Entrepreneurial Education and Self-employment: Does Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy Matter? SEISENSE Business Review, 1(1), 18-30.

Kolvereid, L. (2016). Preference for self-employment: Prediction of new business start-up intentions and efforts. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 17(2), 100-109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1465750316648576

Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0

Liguori, E. W., Bendickson, J. S., & McDowell, W. C. (2018). Revisiting entrepreneurial intentions: a social cognitive career theory approach. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14(1), 67-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0462-7

Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 33(3), 593-617. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00318.x

Liñán, F., & Rodríguez‐Cohard, J. C. (2015). Assessing the stability of graduates’ entrepreneurial intention and exploring its predictive capacity. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 28(1), 77-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ARLA-06-2013-0071

Lorz, M., Müller, S., & Volery, T. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: A meta analysis of impact studies and applied methodologies.

Mahendra, A. M., Djatmika, E. T., & Hermawan, A. (2017). The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention Mediated by Motivation and Attitude among Management Students, State University of Malang, Indonesia. International Education Studies, 10(9), 61-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n9p61

Majogoro, K., & Mgabo, M. R. (2012). Self-employment intention among university students: testing Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB). International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 2(8), 67-84.

Martin, B. C., McNally, J. J., & Kay, M. J. (2013). Examining the formation of human capital in entrepreneurship: A meta-analysis of entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(2), 211-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2012.03.002

Matlay, H., Abaho, E., Olomi, D. R., & Urassa, G. C. (2015). Students’ entrepreneurial self-efficacy: does the teaching method matter? Education+ Training.

Mauer, R., Neergaard, H., & Linstad, A. K. (2017). Self-efficacy: Conditioning the entrepreneurial mindset Revisiting the Entrepreneurial Mind (pp. 293-317): Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45544-0_19

Michelle, K., & Tendai, C. (2016). The association of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention among university students in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 12(3), 200-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09751122.2016.11890427

Nabi, G., Liñán, F., Fayolle, A., Krueger, N., & Walmsley, A. (2017). The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(2), 277-299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2015.0026

Nabi, R. L., & Prestin, A. (2017). Social learning theory and social cognitive theory. The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects, 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0073

Naushad, M., & Malik, S. A. (2018). The mediating effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in entrepreneurial intention-a study in Saudi Arabian context. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(1), 267-275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21511/ppm.16(1).2018.26

Ngoma, M., & Dithan Ntale, P. (2016). Psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda: the mediating role of social capital. International Journal of Training and Development, 20(2), 124-139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijtd.12073

Nowiński, W., Haddoud, M. Y., Lančarič, D., Egerová, D., & Czeglédi, C. (2019). The impact of entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and gender on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in the Visegrad countries. Studies in Higher Education, 44(2), 361-379. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1365359

Ntale, P., Ssempebwa, J., Musisi, B., Ngoma, M., Genza, G. M., Kimoga, J., . . . Balunywa, W. (2020). Interagency collaboration for graduate employment opportunities in Uganda. Education+ Training. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-08-2019-0193

Oyugi, J. L. (2015). The mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of university students. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 11(2), 31-56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7341/20151122

Piperopoulos, P., & Dimov, D. (2015). Burst bubbles or build steam? Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of small business management, 53(4), 970-985. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12116

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Puni, A., Anlesinya, A., & Korsorku, P. D. A. (2018). Entrepreneurial education, self-efficacy and intentions in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 9(4), 492-511. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/AJEMS-09-2017-0211

Rosique-Blasco, M., Madrid-Guijarro, A., & García-Pérez-de-Lema, D. (2018). The effects of personal abilities and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14(4), 1025-1052. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0469-0

Schmutzler, J., Andonova, V., & Diaz-Serrano, L. (2018). How context shapes entrepreneurial self-efficacy as a driver of entrepreneurial intentions: A multilevel approach. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 1042258717753142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1042258717753142

Shahab, Y., Chengang, Y., Arbizu, A. D., & Haider, M. J. (2019). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: do entrepreneurial creativity and education matter? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 25(2), 259-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-12-2017-0522

Solesvik, M. Z. (2013). Entrepreneurial motivations and intentions: investigating the role of education major. Education+ Training, 55(3), 253-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00400911311309314

Stevens, J. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Inc. New Jersey.

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument; How to Test the Validation of a Questionnaire/Survey in a Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 5(3), 28-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3205040

Templeton, G. F. (2011). A two-step approach for transforming continuous variables to normal: implications and recommendations for IS research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 28(1), 4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.02804

Tharenou, P., Donohue, R., & Cooper, B. (2007). Management research methods: Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810527

Thu, T. D. T., & Le Hieu, H. (2017). Building up the Entrepreneurial Intent Construct among Technical Students in Vietnam. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 5(1), 7-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15640/jsbed.v5n1a2

Tiwari, P., Bhat, A. K., & Tikoria, J. (2017). The role of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on social entrepreneurial attitudes and social entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 8(2), 165-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19420676.2017.1371628

Wang, J.-H., Chang, C.-C., Yao, S.-N., & Liang, C. (2016). The contribution of self-efficacy to the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention. Higher Education, 72(2), 209-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9946-y

Wardana, L. W., Narmaditya, B. S., Wibowo, A., Mahendra, A. M., Wibowo, N. A., Harwida, G., & Rohman, A. N. (2020). The impact of entrepreneurship education and students' entrepreneurial mindset: the mediating role of attitude and self-efficacy. Heliyon, 6(9), e04922. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04922

Watson, J., Gatewood, E. J., Lewis, K., Dempsey, D., & Jennings, J. (2014). Gender and entrepreneurial self-efficacy: a learning perspective. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship.

Welsh, D. H., Tullar, W. L., & Nemati, H. (2016). Entrepreneurship education: Process, method, or both? Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 1(3), 125-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.01.005

Wu, W., Wang, H., Zheng, C., & Wu, Y. J. (2019). Effect of narcissism, psychopathy, and machiavellianism on entrepreneurial intention—the mediating of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00360

Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1265