Promoting Behavioral Support for Change: A Conservation of Resources Theory Perspective


  • Farhan Mehboob School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Noraini Othman School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia


Organizational Change, Perceived Management Support, Change-efficacy, Behavioral Support for Change


Purpose- Individuals' support for change is a critical success factor to implement change effectively. Therefore, identifying the possible antecedent and mechanism, leading to behavioral support towards change, is necessary. The study aims to unfold this avenue of research empirically by examining the role of both person and context factors in promoting behavioral support for change.

Design/Methodology- Data was collected from 292 academic staff of six public sector universities located in Pakistan via cross-sectional mean. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect responses from the desired population.

Findings- Results revealed a positive impact of perceived management support on academic staff’s behavioral support for change. Moreover, change-efficacy also provides a statistically significant intervening mechanism to translate the effect of perceived management support on both dimensions of behavioral support to change such as compliance and championing behavior

Practical Implications- The research offers useful insights for top university officials to build support for change by providing needed support and resources; make academic staff capable of executing the change-related tasks into viable actions meritoriously.


Download data is not yet available.

Alessandri, G., Borgogni, L., & Truxillo, D. M. (2015). Tracking job performance trajectories over time: A six-year longitudinal study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(4), 560–577.

Amiot, C. E., Terry, D. J., Jimmieson, N. L., & Callan, V. J. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of coping processes during a merger: Implications for job satisfaction and organizational identification. Journal of Management, 32(4), 552–574.

Amis, J. M., & Aïssaoui, R. (2013). Readiness for change: An institutional perspective. Journal of Change Management, 13(1), 69–95.

Armenakis, A. A., & Bedeian, A. G. (1999). Organizational change: A review of theory and research in the 1990s. Journal of Management, 25(3), 293–315.

Armenakis, A. A., Bernerth, J. B., Pitts, J. P., & Walker, H. J. (2007). Organizational change recipients’ beliefs scale: Development of an assessment instrument. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(4), 481–505.

Armenakis, A. A., & Fredenberger, W. B. (1997). Organizational change readiness practices of business turnaround change agents. Knowledge and Process Management, 4(3), 143–152.

Bakari, H., Hunjra, A. I., & Niazi, G. S. K. (2017). How does authentic leadership influence planned organizational change? The role of employees’ perceptions: Integration of theory of planned behavior and Lewin’s three step model. Journal of Change Management, 17(2), 155–187.

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge university press.

Bayraktar, S. (2019). How leaders cultivate support for change: Resource creation through justice and job security. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 55(2), 213–234.

Bayraktar, S., & Jimenez, A. (2019). Impact of Transformational Leadership on Positive Reactions to Change through Self-Efficacy. 2019(1), 12621. Academy of Management Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510.

Bayraktar, S., & Jiménez, A. (2020). Self-efficacy as a resource: A moderated mediation model of transformational leadership, extent of change and reactions to change. Journal of Organizational Change Management.

Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588.

Bouckenooghe, D., M. Schwarz, G., & Minbashian, A. (2015). Herscovitch and Meyer’s three-component model of commitment to change: Meta-analytic findings. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(4), 578–595.

Burke, R. (2002). Hybrid recommender systems: Survey and experiments. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 12(4), 331–370.

Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H. (2008). Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: Changes, choices, and trends. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1062.

Cinite, I., Duxbury, L. E., & Higgins, C. (2009). Measurement of perceived organizational readiness for change in the public sector. British Journal of Management, 20(2), 265–277.

Coyle-Shapiro, J. A.-M. (1999). Employee participation and assessment of an organizational change intervention: A three-wave study of total quality management. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35(4), 439–456.

Day, K. M., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Norris, D. R. (2012). Other organizations are doing it, why shouldn’t we? A look at downsizing and organizational identity through an institutional theory lens. Journal of Change Management, 12(2), 165–188.

De Clercq, D., & Belausteguigoitia, I. (2017). Mitigating the negative effect of perceived organizational politics on organizational citizenship behavior: Moderating roles of contextual and personal resources. Journal of Management & Organization, 23(5), 689–708.

Falbe, C. M., & Yukl, G. (1992). Consequences for managers of using single influence tactics and combinations of tactics. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3), 638–652.

Fugate, M., & Soenen, G. (2018). Predictors and processes related to employees’ change‐related compliance and championing. Personnel Psychology, 71(1), 109–132.

Haffar, M., Al-Karaghouli, W., & Ghoneim, A. (2014). An empirical investigation of the influence of organizational culture on individual readiness for change in Syrian manufacturing organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management.

Haffar, M., Al-Karaghouli, W., Irani, Z., Djebarni, R., & Gbadamosi, G. (2019). The influence of individual readiness for change dimensions on quality management implementation in Algerian manufacturing organisations. International Journal of Production Economics, 207, 247–260.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5). Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 474.

Hiatt, J. (2006). ADKAR: a model for change in business, government, and our community. Prosci.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). The influence of culture, community, and the nested‐self in the stress process: Advancing conservation of resources theory. Applied Psychology, 50(3), 337–421.

Hobfoll, S. E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J.-P., & Westman, M. (2018). Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 103–128.

Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Harris, S. G. (2007). Readiness for organizational change: The systematic development of a scale. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(2), 232–255.

Hughes, A., Galbraith, D., & White, D. (2011). Perceived competence: A common core for self-efficacy and self-concept? Journal of Personality Assessment, 93(3), 278–289.

Huy, Q. N. (1999). Emotional capability, emotional intelligence, and radical change. Academy of Management Review, 24(2), 325–345.

Iqbal, A., & Asrar-ul-Haq, M. (2018). Establishing relationship between TQM practices and employee performance: The mediating role of change readiness. International Journal of Production Economics, 203, 62–68.

Jansson, N. (2013). Organizational change as practice: A critical analysis. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(6), 1003–1019.

Jimmieson, N. L., Terry, D. J., & Callan, V. J. (2004). A longitudinal study of employee adaptation to organizational change: The role of change-related information and change-related self-efficacy. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(1), 11.

Kavanagh, M. H., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2006). The impact of leadership and change management strategy on organizational culture and individual acceptance of change during a merger. British Journal of Management, 17(S1), S81–S103.

Kim, T. G., Hornung, S., & Rousseau, D. M. (2011). Change-supportive employee behavior: Antecedents and the moderating role of time. Journal of Management, 37(6), 1664–1693.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607–610.

Michel, A., Todnem, R., & Burnes, B. (2013). The limitations of dispositional resistance in relation to organizational change. Management Decision, 51(4), 761–780.

Miraglia, M., Alessandri, G., & Borgogni, L. (2015). Trajectory classes of job performance. Career Development International.

Neves, P. (2009). Readiness for change: Contributions for employee’s level of individual change and turnover intentions. Journal of Change Management, 9(2), 215–231.

Ng, T. W., & Lucianetti, L. (2016). Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social–cognitive theory perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(1), 14.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory: 2d Ed. McGraw-Hill.

Oreg, S., Bartunek, J. M., Lee, G., & Do, B. (2018). An affect-based model of recipients’ responses to organizational change events. Academy of Management Review, 43(1), 65–86.

Oreg, S., Vakola, M., & Armenakis, A. (2011). Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change: A 60-year review of quantitative studies. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47(4), 461–524.

Rafferty, A. E., Jimmieson, N. L., & Armenakis, A. A. (2013). Change readiness: A multilevel review. Journal of Management, 39(1), 110–135.

Rafferty, A. E., & Minbashian, A. (2019). Cognitive beliefs and positive emotions about change: Relationships with employee change readiness and change-supportive behaviors. Human Relations, 72(10), 1623–1650.

Rafferty, A. E., & Restubog, S. L. (2017). Why do employees’ perceptions of their organization’s change history matter? The role of change appraisals. Human Resource Management, 56(3), 533–550.

Schreyögg, G., & Sydow, J. (2010). Crossroads—Organizing for fluidity? Dilemmas of new organizational forms. Organization Science, 21(6), 1251–1262.

Sharma, N., Herrnschmidt, J., Claes, V., Bachnick, S., De Geest, S., Simon, M., & MatchRN‐Study Group. (2018). Organizational readiness for implementing change in acute care hospitals: An analysis of a cross‐sectional, multicentre study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(12), 2798–2808.

Shin, J., Taylor, M. S., & Seo, M.-G. (2012). Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(3), 727–748.

Stouten, J., Rousseau, D. M., & De Cremer, D. (2018). Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), 752–788.

Strauss, K., & Parker, S. K. (2018). Intervening to enhance proactivity in organizations: Improving the present or changing the future. Journal of Management, 44(3), 1250–1278.

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2014). Daily job crafting and the self-efficacy–performance relationship. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

Tomprou, M., Nikolaou, I., & Vakola, M. (2012). Experiencing organizational change in Greece: The framework of psychological contract. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(2), 385–405.

Vakola, M. (2014). What’s in there for me? Individual readiness to change and the perceived impact of organizational change. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

van den Heuvel, M., Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2014). How psychological resources facilitate adaptation to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(6), 847–858.

Wanberg, C. R., & Banas, J. T. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of openness to changes in a reorganizing workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 132.

Zhao, H. H., Seibert, S. E., Taylor, M. S., Lee, C., & Lam, W. (2016). Not even the past: The joint influence of former leader and new leader during leader succession in the midst of organizational change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(12), 1730.

Zhou, Q., Martinez, L. F., Ferreira, A. I., & Rodrigues, P. (2016). Supervisor support, role ambiguity and productivity associated with presenteeism: A longitudinal study. Journal of Business Research, 69(9), 3380–3387.



How to Cite

Mehboob, F., & Othman, N. (2020). Promoting Behavioral Support for Change: A Conservation of Resources Theory Perspective. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 3(6), 1-13.