Entrepreneurial Marketing Theory: Current Developments and Future Research Agenda

Main Article Content

Tayyab Amjad
Shamsul Huda Abdul Rani
Shiza Sa'atar


Purpose- Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM) research has progressed rapidly over the last decade due to its effectiveness in highly competitive markets and uncertain conditions. However, the theory development in the EM domain is inadequate as yet. Due to this, the higher education institutions are also using outdated curricula to teach EM, as the new theories contribute towards the development of curricula. Thus, to assist in upgrading the EM curricula, we have examined the theory development over the last decade in the domain of EM.

Design/Methodology- A systematic and in-depth review and analysis of over a decade’s EM literature has been done.

Findings- Five major yet specific gaps are identified, and accordingly, we have proposed future research directions.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Amjad, T., Abdul Rani, S. H., & Sa’atar, S. (2020). Entrepreneurial Marketing Theory: Current Developments and Future Research Agenda. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 3(1), 27–46. https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v3i1.274
Business Management

Copyright (c) 2020 Tayyab Amjad, Shamsul Huda Abdul Rani, Shiza Sa'atar

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Ahmad, S. Z., & Buchanan, R. F. (2015). Entrepreneurship education in Malaysian universities. Tertiary Education and Management, 21(4), 349–366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13583883.2015.1106577

Ahmad, S. Z., & Saber, H. (2015). Understanding marketing strategies with particular reference to small- and medium-sized hotel businesses in the United Arab Emirates. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 15(2), 115–129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358414567799

Alford, P., & Page, S. J. (2015). Marketing technology for adoption by small businesses. Service Industries Journal, 35(11–12), 655–669. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2015.1062884

Alonso, A. D. (2012). Promotional efforts of muscadine wines and muscadine-related products: The case of southern United States wineries. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 36(6), 702–709. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01056.x

Amjad, T., Abdul Rani, S. H., & Sa’atar, S. (2020). A new dimension of entrepreneurial marketing and key challenges: A case study from Pakistan. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 3(1), 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v3i1.272

Andersson, S., Evers, N., & Gliga, G. (2018). Entrepreneurial marketing and born global internationalization in China. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), 202–231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-11-2016-0115

Anwar, M. N., & Daniel, E. (2016). Entrepreneurial marketing in online businesses. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 19(3), 310–338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-04-2015-0029

Bakhtiari, S. (2017). Entrepreneurship dynamics in Australia: Lessons from micro-data. Retrieved from https://industry.gov.au/Office-of-the-Chief-Economist/Research-Papers/Documents/2017-Research-Paper-5-Entrepreneurship-Dynamics-in-Australia.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2940093

Becherer, R. C., & Helms, M., M. (2016). The role of entrepreneurial marketing in improving market share for small business facing external environmental or resources challenges. Journal of Business & Entrepreneurship, 27(2), 119–147.

Bell, M. L. (1986). Some strategy implications of a matrix approach to the classification of marketing goods and services. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 14(1), 13–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02722108

Bettiol, M., Di Maria, E., & Finotto, V. (2012). Marketing in SMEs: The role of entrepreneurial sensemaking. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 8(2), 223–248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-011-0174-3

Bhatli, D., Eggers, F., & Gundolf, K. (2012). Brand communities for market trend discovery: A study to advance entrepreneurial marketing research. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 16(4), 422–435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2012.047610

Blackburn, R., & Kovalainen, A. (2009). Researching small firms and entrepreneurship: Past, present and future. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(2), 127–148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2008.00254.x

Bocconcelli, R., Cioppi, M., Fortezza, F., Francioni, B., Pagano, A., Savelli, E., & Splendiani, S. (2018). SMEs and Marketing: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(2), 227–254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12128

Butts, G. (2017). Dream Now, Build for the Future (1st ed.). New York: Page Publishing Inc.

Charmaz, K. (1996). The search for meanings - grounded theory. Rethinking Methods in Psychology, 27–49.

Chaudhury, S. R., Albinsson, P. A., Shows, G. D., & Moench, V. (2014). The winemaker as entrepreneurial marketer: An exploratory study. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 26(4), 259–278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWBR-06-2013-0023

Collinson, E., & Shaw, E. (2001). Entrepreneurial marketing: A historical perspective on development and practice. Management Decision, 39(2), 761–767. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006221

Copley, P. (2013). The need to deliver higher-order skills in the context of marketing in SMEs. Industry and Higher Education, 27(6), 465–476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2013.0181

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.

Crick, D., Chaudhry, S., & Crick, J. M. (2018). Risks/rewards and an evolving business model: A case study of a small lifestyle business in the UK tourism sector. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), 143–165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-01-2017-0001

Crick, J. M. (2018). The facets, antecedents and consequences of coopetition. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), 253–272. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-11-2016-0109

Dalecki, L. (2016). Sales as entrepreneurship at Ewing Kauffman’s Marion Laboratories. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 18(1), 14–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-02-2015-0009

Daymon, C., & Holloway, I. (2011). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications (2nd ed.).

Elsevier. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus

Elvira, F., Besa, X., & Elona, F. (2014). The spontaneity of international market and the need for entrepreneurial marketing: Evidence of Albanian entrepreneurs in Italy. Business Management Dynamics, 3(10), 14–20.

Fillis, I. (2015). The production and consumption activities relating to the celebrity artist. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(5–6), 646–664. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2014.988281

Fillis, I. (2014). The impact of aesthetics on the celtic craft market. Consumption Markets and Culture, 17(3), 274–294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10253866.2013.763603

Fillis, I., Lehman, K., & Miles, M. P. (2017). The museum of old and new art: Leveraging entrepreneurial marketing to create a unique arts and vacation venture. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 23(1), 85–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766716634153

Franco, M., de Fátima Santos, M., Ramalho, I., & Nunes, C. (2014). An exploratory study of entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 21(2), 265–283. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-10-2012-0112

Gaddefors, J., & Anderson, A. R. (2009). Market creation: The epitome of entrepreneurial marketing practices. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 19–39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01443571010996217

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine.

Gosling, J., & Mintzberg, H. (2006). Management education as if both matter. Management Learning, 37(4), 419–428. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350507606070214

Gross, N., Carson, D., & Jones, R. (2014). Beyond rhetoric: re-thinking entrepreneurial marketing from a practice perspective. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 16(2), 105–127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-01-2014-0003

Grünhagen, M., & Mishra, C. S. (2008). Entrepreneurial and small business marketing: An introduction. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(1), 1–3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2007.00227.x

Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., Cunningham, J. A., & Gajón, E. (2018). Determinants of graduates’ start-ups creation across a multi-Campus entrepreneurial university: The case of Monterrey institute of technology and higher education. Journal of Small Business Management, 56(1), 150–178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12366

Hallbäck, J., & Gabrielsson, P. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing strategies during the growth of international new ventures originating in small and open economies. International Business Review, 22(6), 1008–1020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.02.006

Hameed, W., Azeem, M., Ali, M., Nadeem, S., & Amjad, T. (2017). The role of distribution channels and educational level towards insurance awareness among the general public. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 6(4), 308–318.

Hanage, R., Scott, J. M., & Davies, M. A. P. (2016). From “great expectations” to “hard times.” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 22(1), 17–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-07-2014-0135

Hansen, D. J., & Eggers, F. (2010). The marketing/entrepreneurship interface: A report on the “Charleston Summit.” Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 12(1), 42–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715201011060867

Harrigan, P., Ramsey, E., & Ibbotson, P. (2012). Entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs: The key capabilities of e‐CRM. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 14(1), 40–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715201211246760

Hendrickson, L., Bucifal, S., Balaguer, A., & Hansell, D. (2015). The employment dynamics of Australian entrepreneurship. Hendrickson, L., Bucifal, S., Balaguer, A., & Hansell, D. (2015). Retrieved from www.industry.gov.au

Hills, G. E., Hultman, C. M., Kraus, S., & Schulte, R. (2010). History, theory and evidence of entrepreneurial marketing - an overview. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 11(1), 3–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEIM.2010.029765

Hisrich, R. D. (1992). The need for marketing in entrepreneurship. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 7(3), 53–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08858629210035427

Hulbert, B., Day, J., & Shaw, E. (1998). No Title. In Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Symposia on the Marketing and Entrepreneurship Interface.

Jaafar, M. (2012). Entrepreneurial marketing and accommodation businesses in East Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 164–183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715201211271393

Jaafar, M. (2012). Entrepreneurial marketing and accommodation businesses in east Peninsular Malaysia. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(2), 89–100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358412466660

Jones, R., & Rowley, J. (2012). Card-based game methods: Exploring SME entrepreneurial marketing practice. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 16(4), 485–502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2012.047614

Jones, R., & Rowley, J. (2009). Presentation of a generic “EMICO” framework for research exploration of entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 5–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715200911014112

Jones, R., Suoranta, M., & Rowley, J. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing: A comparative study. Service Industries Journal, 33(7–8), 705–719. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2013.740470

Jones, R., Suoranta, M., & Rowley, J. (2013). Strategic network marketing in technology SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(5–6), 671–697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2013.797920

Kannampuzha, M. J., & Suoranta, M. (2016). Bricolage in the marketing efforts of a social enterprise. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 18(2), 176–196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-07-2015-0039

Kraus, S., Fink, M., Rössel, D., & Jensen, S. H. (2007). Marketing in small and medium sized enterprises. Review of Business Research, 7(3), 1–10.

Kraus, S., Harms, R., & Fink, M. (2010). Entrepreneurial marketing: Moving beyond marketing in new ventures. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 11(1), 19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEIM.2010.029766

Krisjanous, J., & Carruthers, J. (2018). Walking on the light side. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), 232–252. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-12-2016-0123

Kucel, A., Róbert, P., Buil, M., & Masferrer, N. (2016). Entrepreneurial skills and education-job matching of higher education graduates. European Journal of Education, 51(1), 73–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12161

Kurgun, H., Bagiran, D., Ozeren, E., & Maral, B. (2011). Entrepreneurial marketing-The interface between marketing and entrepreneurship: A qualitative research on boutique hotels. European Journal of Social Sciences, 26(3), 340–357.

Lehman, K., Ronald Fillis, I., & Miles, M. (2014). The art of entrepreneurial market creation. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 16(2), 163–182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-09-2013-0024

Lewis, G., Crispin, S., Bonney, L., Woods, M., Fei, J., Ayala, S., & Miles, M. (2014). Branding as innovation within agribusiness value chains. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 16(2), 146–162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-03-2014-0005

Lindman, M. (2004). Formation of customer bases in SMEs. The Marketing Review, 4(2), 134–156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1362/1469347041569867

Maritz, A., Frederick, H., & Valos, M. (2010). A discursive approach to entrepreneurial marketing: Integrating academic and practice theory. Small Enterprise Research, 17(1), 74–86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5172/ser.17.1.74

Martin, D. M. (2009). The entrepreneurial marketing mix. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 12(4), 391–403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750910993310

Medugu, P. Z. (2017). The effect of boko haram activities on educational development in Madagali local government area of Adamawa State. International Journal of Academic Research and Development, 2(1), 14–23.

Meyers, Y. J., & Harmeling, S. S. (2011). Best address: The use of innovative marketing in the real estate industry. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 13(1), 74–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715201111147950

Minniti, M. (2016). The foundational contribution to entrepreneurship research of William J. Baumol. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 10(2), 214–228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1219

Mintzberg, H. (2009). Managers not MBAs: A hard look at the soft practice of managing and management development. Berrett-Koehler.

Mishra, C. S. (2015). Getting funded: Proof-of-concept, due diligence, risk and reward. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2698566

Mishra, C. S., & Zachary, R. K. (2015). The theory of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 5(4), 251–268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/erj-2015-0042

Mitchell, R., Hutchinson, K., Quinn, B., & Gilmore, A. (2015). A framework for SME retail branding. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(17–18), 1818–1850. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1063531

Morgan, N. A., Whitler, K. A., Feng, H., & Chari, S. (2019). Research in marketing strategy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(1), 4–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-018-0598-1

Moriarty, J., Jones, R., Rowley, J., & Kupiec‐Teahan, B. (2008). Marketing in small hotels: A qualitative study. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 26(3), 293–315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500810871348

Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. W. (2002). Entrepreneurial marketing: A construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4), 1–19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.2002.11501922

Mort, G. S., Weerawardena, J., & Liesch, P. (2012). Advancing entrepreneurial marketing: Evidence from born global firms. European Journal of Marketing, 46(3/4), 542–561. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090561211202602

Nikolić, N., Jovanović, I., Nikolić, Đ., Mihajlović, I., & Schulte, P. (2019). Investigation of the Factors Influencing SME Failure as a Function of Its Prevention and Fast Recovery after Failure. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 9(3), 1–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/erj-2017-0030

Nouri, P., Imanipour, N., Talebi, K., & Zali, M. (2018). Exploring positive outcomes of decision making biases in the field of entrepreneurial marketing. Qualitative Report, 23(6), 1364–1380.

Nouri, P., Imanipour, N., Talebi, K., & Zali, M. (2018). Most common heuristics and biases in nascent entrepreneurs’ marketing behavior. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 30(6), 451–472. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2018.1427406

O’Cass, A., & Morrish, S. (2015). Anatomy of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(1), 2–4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2015.1035035

Ojasalo, J., & Ojasalo, K. (2018). Service Logic Business Model Canvas. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 20(1), 70–98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-06-2016-0015

Omura, G. S., Calantone, R. J., & Schmidt, J. B. (1993). Entrepreneurism as a market satisfying mechanism in a free market system. Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, 161–171.

Orr, A. (1995). Customers for life. Target Marketing, 18(3), 20–21.

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Oyighan, D., & Dennis, E. E. (2016). Education and human capacity building in library and information science education. International Journal of Advanced Research Foundation, 3(8), 17–20.

Özdemir, Ö. G. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing and social value creation in Turkish art industry. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 15(1), 39–60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-03-2013-0012

Perks, K. J., & Shukla, P. (2008). An exploratory study conceptualising marketing thought in entrepreneurial medium-sized firms in high-tech and conventional industries in France, Germany and Italy. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 6(2), 192–211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2008.018628

Pfeffer, J., & Fong, C. T. (2004). The business school “business”: Some lessons from the US experience. Journal of Management Studies, 41(8), 1501–1520. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00484.x

Phua, S., & Jones, O. (2010). Marketing in new business ventures: examining the myth of informality. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 11(1), 35–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEIM.2010.029767

Piperopoulos, P., & Dimov, D. (2015). Burst Bubbles or Build Steam? Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 970–985. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12116

Pitchayadol, P., Hoonsopon, D., Chandrachai, A., & Triukose, S. (2018). Innovativeness in Thai family SMEs: An exploratory case study. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 28(281), 38–48.

Plewa, C., Galán-Muros, V., & Davey, T. (2015). Engaging business in curriculum design and delivery: A higher education institution perspective. Higher Education, 70(1), 35–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9822-1

Raelin, J. A. (2007). Toward an epistemology of practice. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(4), 495–519. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2007.27694950

Raelin, J. A. (2009). The practice turn-away: Forty years of spoon-feeding in management education. Management Learning, 40(4), 401–410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350507609335850

Renton, M., Daellenbach, U., Davenport, S., & Richard, J. (2015). Small but sophisticated: Entrepreneurial marketing and SME approaches to brand management. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 17(2), 149–164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-05-2014-0008

Resnick, S. M., Cheng, R., Simpson, M., & Lourenço, F. (2016). Marketing in SMEs: A “4Ps” self-branding model. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 22(1), 155–174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-07-2014-0139

Resnick, S., Cheng, R., Brindley, C., & Foster, C. (2011). Aligning teaching and practice: A study of SME marketing. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 13(1), 37–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715201111147932

Rideout, E. C., & Gray, D. O. (2013). Does entrepreneurship education really work? A review and methodological critique of the empirical literature on the effects of university-based entrepreneurship education. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 329–351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12021

Rousseau, D. M. (2012). Designing a better business school: Channelling Herbert Simon, addressing the critics, and developing actionable knowledge for professionalizing managers. Journal of Management Studies, 49(3), 600–618. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2011.01041.x

S. B. A. (2019). US Small Business Administration. Retrieved August 17, 2019, from https://www.sba.gov/

Schmengler, K., & Kraus, S. (2010). Entrepreneurial marketing over the internet: An explorative qualitative empirical analysis. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2(1), 56–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEV.2010.033917

Schoemaker, P. J. H. (2008). The future challenges of business: Rethinking management education. California Management Review, 50(3), 119–139. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/41166448

Schulte, R. ., & Eggers, F. (2010). Entrepreneurial marketing and the role of information - Evidence from young service ventures. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 11(1), 56–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEIM.2010.029768

Shaw, E., & Carson, D. (1995). The emergence of entrepreneurial marketing: A new paradigm? In Proceedings of the Marketing Education Group Annual Conference (pp. 713–723).

Shin, J., & Kim, S. K. (2017). The Egocentrism of Entrepreneurs: Bias in Comparative Judgments. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 9(1), 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/erj-2017-0100

Singh, A., Saini, G. K., & Majumdar, S. (2015). Application of social marketing in social entrepreneurship: Evidence from India. Social Marketing Quarterly, 21(3), 152–172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1524500415595208

Stokes, D. (2000). Putting entrepreneurship into marketing: The process of entrepreneurial marketing. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 1–16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14715200080001536

Stokes, D. (2000). Entrepreneurial marketing: A conceptualisation from qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(1), 47–54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750010310497

Szabo, R. Z., Hortovanyi, L., Tarody, D. F., Ferincz, A., & Dobak, M. (2011). The role of knowledge in entrepreneurial marketing. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 3(2), 149–167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEV.2011.039338

Thomas, L. C., Painbéni, S., & Barton, H. (2013). Entrepreneurial marketing within the French wine industry. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 19(2), 238–260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13552551311310392

Thompson-Whiteside, H., Turnbull, S., & Howe-Walsh, L. (2018). Developing an authentic personal brand using impression management behaviours. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 21(2), 166–181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-01-2017-0007

Toghraee, M. T., Mobaraki, M. H. & Farsi, J. Y. (2017). Entrepreneurial marketing in creative art based businesses. Int. J. Management Practice, 10(4), 1–18.

Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14(3), 207–222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00375

United Nations. (2019). World Economic Situation and Prospects.

Van Scheers, L. (2011). SMEs’ marketing skills challenges in South Africa. African Journal of Business Management, 5(13), 5048–5056.

Vanevenhoven, J. (2013). Advances and challenges in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 466–470. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12043

Varadarajan, P. R. R., & Jayachandran, S. (1999). Marketing strategy: An assessment of the state of the field and outlook. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 120–143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070399272002

Wallnöfer, M., & Hacklin, F. (2013). The business model in entrepreneurial marketing: A communication perspective on business angels’ opportunity interpretation. Industrial Marketing Management, 42(5), 755–764. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.05.012

Webb, J. W., Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A., Kistruck, G. M., & Tihanyi, L. (2011). Where is the opportunity without the customer? An integration of marketing activities, the entrepreneurship process, and institutional theory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(4), 537–554. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-010-0237-y

Weerawardena, J., Mort, G. S., & Liesch, P. W. (2017). Capabilities development and deployment activities in born global B-to-B firms for early entry into international markets. Industrial Marketing Management, (May), 1–15.

Yang, M., & Gabrielsson, P. (2017). Entrepreneurial marketing of international high-tech business-to-business new ventures: A decision-making process perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 64, 147–160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.01.007

Zachary, R. K., & Mishra, C. S. (2013). Research on Angel Investments: The Intersection of Equity Investments and Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 3(2), 160–170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/erj-2013-0044