Contribution of Job Nature on Leadership Style among Academia
Purpose- Effective leadership practices in schools are only possible while headmaster and teachers adopt suitable leadership styles. The main purpose of this study is to identify the leadership styles as well as determine the association of democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire leadership style with each other among school teachers.
Design/Methodology- This study is based on post-positivist research philosophy and cross-sectional survey as the research design which is confirmatory and explanatory in nature. It gathered the data via self-administer questionnaire from 345 school teachers and analyzed through descriptive statistics and parametric test.
Findings- The researcher derived that school teachers adopted a more democratic leadership style and gave least prefer to the laissez-faire leadership style in schools. Meanwhile, the lacking of equal facility and access to power exercise contributes to making significant differences in leadership styles across the job nature of school teachers. Furthermore, this study assess that there is no relationship between autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles. These distinct styles of leadership may develop the differences in work performances of school teachers.
Practical Implications- This research provides the framework for another future researcher to investigate the input of job nature on leadership style among school teachers.
Adeyemi, T. O. (2011). Principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ job performance in senior secondary schools in Ondo state, Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Economic Theory, 3(3), 84-92.
Al-Maki, M., & Juan, W. (2018). Impact of laissez-faire leadership on role ambiguity and role conflict: Implications for job performance. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 4(1), 29-43. doi:10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.41.2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.41.2003
Balz, A. (2017). Cross-national variations in the security gap: Perceived job insecurity among temporary and permanent employees and employment protection legislation. European Sociological Review, 33(5), 675–692. doi:10.1093/esr/jcx067 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcx067
Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G. M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M. A., & Shaikh, F. M. (2012). The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International Business Research, 5(2), 192-201. doi:10.5539/ibr.v5n2p192 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v5n2p192
Chaudhary, A. Q., & Javed, H. (2012). Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style on motivation. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7), 258-264.
Cherry, K. (2018, September 11). Autocratic leadership: Key characteristics, strengths, and weakness of autocratic leadership. Verywell Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-autocratic-leadership-2795314
Cherry, K. (2019, March 11). Leadership styles and frameworks you should know. Verywell Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/leadership-styles-2795312
Chua, J., Basti, A., & Hassan, Z. (2018). Leadership style and its impact on employee performance. International Journal of Accounting and Business Management, 6(1), 80-94. doi:10.24924/ijabm/2018.04/v6.iss1.80.94
Clayton, M. (2017, May 2). Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt: Leadership continuum. Management Pocket Books. Retrieved from https://www.pocketbook.co.uk/blog/2017/05/02/robert-tannenbaum-warren-schmidt-leadership-continuum/
Department of Education and Training. (2006). Teachers' code of professional practice. Canberra: Author.
District Education Office. (2016). Educational report of Dhading district – 2016. Retrieved from http://www.deodhading.gov.np
Drobot, L., & Rosu, M. (2012, 24-26 May ). Teachers’ leadership style in the classroom and their impact upon high school students. Paper presented at the International conference of scientific paper AFASES 2012, Brasov.
Dudovisky, J. (2013, March 30). Leadership continuum theory by Tannerbaum and Schmidt. Research Methodology. Retrieved from http://research-methodology.net/leadership-continuum-theory-by-tannerbaum-and-schmidt/
Fentiman-Hall, S. (2017). Are you an autocrat, laissez-faire, or transformational leader? From Kurt Lewin’s 1939 leadership framework research, to more modern ideas about transformational leaders, there are almost as many styles of leadership as leaders. Virgin. Retrieved from https://www.virgin.com/entrepreneur/autocratic-democratic-or-laissez-faire-whats-your-leadership-style
Fries, K. (2018). 8 essential qualities that define great leadership. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/kimberlyfries/2018/02/08/8-essential-qualities-that-define-great-leadership/#4e7cf5733b63
Gaskel, C. (2016, May 17). The nine types of employees and how to motivate them. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/careers/2016/may/17/the-nine-types-of-employees-and-how-to-motivate-them
Germano, M. A. (2010). Leadership style and organizational impact. Library workforce: HR E News for Today’s Leaders. Retrieved from http://ala-apa.org/newsletter/2010/06/08/spotlight/
Hafez, A. (2017). How do autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership differ. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-do-autocratic-democratic-laissez-faire-leadership-ahmed-hafez
Igbaekemen, G. O., & Odivwri, J. E. (2015). Impact of leadership style on organizational performance: A critical literature review. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5(5), 142-149. doi:10.4172/2223-5833.1000142
Isundwa, S. J. (2015). The Influence of Leadership Styles on Students Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Morogoro Municipality. (Master degree dissertation, Open University of Tanzania). Retrieved from http://repository.out.ac.tz/1137/
Kale, M., & Ozdelen, E. (2014). The analysis of teacher leadership styles according to teachers’ perceptions in primary schools. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 227-232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.185
Khan, M. S., Khan, I., Qureshi, Q. A., Ismail, H. M., Rauf, H., Latif, A., & Tahir, M. (2015). The styles of leadership: A critical review. Public Policy and Administration Research, 5(3), 87-92.
Kumari, D. U. (2016). Comparative study of leadership styles among teachers of private and govt. senior secondary schools. International Education and Research Journal, 2(11), 65-66.
Lester, C. N. (1975). Leadership styles – a key to effectiveness. Journal of Extension, November/December, 3-11.
Lucky, E. O., Minai, M. S., & Rahman, H. A. (2013). Impact of Job Security on the Organizational Performance in a Multiethnic Environment. Research Journal of Business Management 7, 64-70. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/rjbm.2013.64.70 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/rjbm.2013.64.70
Lynch, K., & Lodge, A. (2002). Equality and power in schools: Redistribution, recognition and representation. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Mahmood, K. (2007). Least common multiple of teacher leadership styles: Implications for classroom. . Bulletin of Education and Research, 29(2), 19-42.
McCallum, J. S. (2013). The followership: The other types of leadership. Ivey Business Journal: Improving the Practice of Management, September-October (2013). Retrieved from https://iveybusinessjournal.com/publication/followership-the-other-side-of-leadership/.
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2018). Educational brochure 2017. Kathmandu: Author.
Mwaisaka, D. M., K’Aol, G., & Ouma, C. (2019). Influence of supportive leadership style on employee job satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya. Journal of Human Resource and Leadership, 4(1), 44-66.
Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., & Swamy, D. R. (2014). Leadership styles. Advances in Management, 7(2), 57-62.
Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice (5th ed.). New Delhi: Sage publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Nyiha, G. M. (2015). Influence of principals leadership styles on teachers job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Kiambu sub-county, Kiambu county, Kenya. (Master of Education research project on educational administration, University of Nairobi). Retrieved from http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/92821/Nyiha_Influence
Ojokuku, R. M., Odetayo, T. A., Sajuyigbe, A. S. (2012). Impact of leadership style on organizational performance: A case study of Nigerian Banks. American Journal of Business and Management, 1(4), 202-207. doi:10.11634/216796061706212 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11634/216796061706212
Oyetunyi, C. O. (2006). The relationship between leadership styles and school climate: Botswana secondary schools. (Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of South Africa). Retrieved from http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/2354/thesis.pdf;jsessionid=7055858573DED1078C8D45DC05B964D8?sequence=1
Rahmat, R., Ramly, M., Mallongi, S., & Kalla, R. (2019). The leadership style effect on the job satisfaction and the performance. Asia Pacific Journal of Management and Education, 2(1), 1-13. doi:10.3253/apjme.V2i1.376
Sagepub. (n. d.). 3.1 leadership styles questionnaires. Retrieved from http://www.sdececonference-org.doodlekit.com/file/323169/Leadership_Styles_Questionaire.pdf.
Sandling, J. (2014). Laissez faire leadership. Retrieved from https://jonathsandling.com/laissez-faire-leadership/.
Shamaki, E. B. (2015). Influence of leadership style on teacher’s job productivity in public secondary schools in Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(10), 200-203.
Skogstad, A., Einarsen, S., Torsheim, T., Aasland, M. S., & Hetland, H. (2007). The destructiveness of laissez-faire leadership behavior. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(1), 80-92. doi:10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89126.96.36.199
Tapper, J. (2018, May 13). Burned out: Why are so many teachers quitting or off sick with stress? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2018/may/13/teacher-burnout-shortages-recruitment-problems-budget-cuts
Tarsik, N. F., Kassim, N. A., & Nasharudin, N. (2014). Transformational, transactional or laissez-faire: What styles do university librarians practice? Journal of organizational management studies, 2014(2014), 1-14. doi:10.5171/2014.194100 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5171/2014.194100
Thapa, A. (2011). Does private school competition improve public school performance? The case of Nepal. (Unpublished doctoral thesis), University of Columbia: New York.
Yamane, T. (1967). Elementary sampling theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Yang, I. (2015). Positive effects of laissez-faire leadership: Conceptual exploration. Journal of Management Development, 34(10), 1246-1261. doi:10.1108/JMD-02-2015-0016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-02-2015-0016
Copyright (c) 2019 Milan Shrestha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.